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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Publisher: transcript Verlag

    Krisen erschüttern die Routinen des gesellschaftlichen Zusammenlebens. Zugleich offenbaren sie, wie Gesellschaften funktionieren, zu welchen Anpassungsleistungen sie fähig sind und über welche Ressourcen sie verfügen. Die Coronakrise hat gezeigt, wie moderne Gesellschaften auf Gesundheitskrisen reagieren und zur Bewältigung mannigfaltige Technologien einsetzen, um in einer Situation der gegenseitigen Bedrohung ihr weiteres Funktionieren sicherzustellen. Der Band widmet sich dieser Rolle von Technologien der Krise in einer theoretischen, normativen und empirischen Perspektive und versammelt Beiträge aus Soziologie, Computer Science, Ethik und Gesundheitswissenschaft.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Torvela, Riikka;
    Country: Finland

    Introduction: The outbreak of COVID-19 led the world to a new era of digitalization, as the mandatory worldwide social isolation in the first quarter of the year 2020 changed the communication between people to happen mainly through digital platforms. It is to be expected that due to time and money-saving aspects, remote working and studying will continue after the worse days of the pandemic, and hours of digital device usage will also remain massive in the future. Purpose: This scoping review aimed to identify existing research results and possible information deficiencies in the existing studies and compare empirical evidence of how the outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted the use of digital devices and, thereby, digital eye strain in adults. Methods: This scoping review consisted of eight qualitative descriptive survey studies. The main literature search was conducted on the 21st of March 2022 from three different databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Academic search premier, using key search terms ("computer vision syndrome" OR "digital eye strain") AND ("covid-19" OR "sars-cov-2"). Only studies regarding adults (age limit 18 years), available in full text and published in English, were included. Results: The reported average increase in screen time after the outbreak of COVID-19 ranged between 2.1h – 4.8h ± 2.8h, raising the total screen time to 8.65h ± 3,74h - 11.1h ± 4.5h. The prevalence of digital eye strain ranged between 66.6% to 94.3%. The increase in screen time was the most reported risk factor for DES. Young adults were found to be more symptomatic than relatively older people. Even though the prevalence of DES remained quite the same compared to pre-covid time, the frequency and intensity of symptoms became more severe while total screen time increased in all age groups. Additionally, the median DES scores were higher for those whose screen time jumped more during the pandemic. The most common symptoms were headache, dryness of the eyes, eye strain, and eye fatigue. Conclusions: The results give an alarming sign of how this new era of digitalization may lead to epidemic worsening or even chronic state of digital eye strain in the future, especially among young adults, all students, and remote workers, if total screen time remains as high as reported in recent studies, adequate breaks are not taken care of, and proper ergonomics are neglected.

  • Open Access Catalan; Valencian
    Authors: 
    Districte 5. Sarrià-Sant Gervasi;
    Country: Spain

    Presentada al Consell Plenari del Districte de Sarrià Sant Gervasi de 17-12-2020 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. Inclou 5 línies estratègiques que s’enfoquen en l’impuls d’accions i projectes que permetin mantenir i fer més competitiu i innovador el model comercial del districte. Entre els objectius principals destaquen: protegir el comerç de proximitat, potenciar la competitivitat, la innovació i la transformació digital i suport a la campanya de Nadal Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Akbari, T. T. (Taufan); Pratomo, R. R. (Rizky);
    Publisher: Padjadjaran University
    Country: Indonesia

    The pandemic is forcing universities to carry out digital transformation simultaneously. However, the pandemic opened Pandora's box revealing the fundamental weaknesses of universities that make them unprepared to adapt to changing times. However, the pandemic can be an opportunity to transform the entire workforce in universities so that their existence remains relevant. The critical factor in this transformation is the leader. Today's leaders must change from traditional to digital. Digital leaders can be a catalyst for change to oversee digital transformation in universities. Therefore, this study intends to explain how the implementation of digital leadership in universities in Indonesia, especially since the world has been hit by a pandemic. The author uses the literature study method and interviews stakeholders in universities. The author finds that three fundamental challenges must be overcome: culture and mindset, human resource competence, and infrastructure. Higher education leaders must resolve these three challenges to ensure that digital transformation runs smoothly. The author argues that universities are still relevant to producing quality human resources and abilities according to the times. To maintain the relevance and role of universities, leaders need to implement changes holistically, starting by creating a holistic grand design, increasing human resource competencies, infrastructure development, developing a new mindset, creating progressive culture, to organizational restructuring.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Districte 10. Sant Martí;
    Country: Spain

    Presentada al Consell Plenari del Districte de Sant Martí de 08-07-2021 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. S’articula al voltant de quatre línies estratègiques: la resiliència del comerç de proximitat en moments de crisi; la fidelització cap al comerç de proximitat; la competitivitat, innovació i digitalització, i l’associacionisme comercial com a element clau. Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Districte 1. Ciutat Vella;
    Country: Spain

    Aprovada pel Consell Plenari del Districte de Ciutat Vella de 15-10-2020 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    FUKUSHIMA, Akiko;
    Publisher: European University Institute
    Country: Italy

    Digital connectivity – loosely defined as connecting people through digital means promises to enhance our quality of life, as envisaged in Japan’s ‘Society 5.0’, which aims to spur economic growth and solve social problems digitally. On the other hand, digital connectivity also creates challenges and demands a quest for optimum equilibrium between economic growth and national as well as human security. The COVID-19 pandemic which erupted in late 2019 has accelerated world dependence on digital connectivity in order to sustain human contact. Digital means have allowed us to continue our lives, work and pleasure connections, and have simultaneously expanded digital risks at home and globally. The COVID-19 scenario has also demonstrated how digital technology can even threaten our sovereignty and basic values such as freedom, democracy, privacy, human rights and dignity. Japan and the EU approach the digital age with a common emphasis on leading standards to set and promote a human-centred digital connectivity. The two zones can cooperate bilaterally and beyond in responding to challenges on digital connectivity, as is stipulated in three key documents, namely Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), Japan-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) and Japan-EU Partnership

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Across Africa, agriculture is a primary sector of employment, and African women provide about 40 percent of the agricultural labor across the continent. Yet women farmers face systemic barriers to success, leading to large gender gaps in agricultural productivity that range from 23 percent in Tanzania to 66 percent in Niger. These gender gaps not only represent major untapped economic potential but could also yield sizable gains for African economies if they were closed. For instance, in Nigeria, closing the gender productivity gap in agriculture could boost gross domestic product by an estimated US2.3 billion dollars and potentially as much as US8.1 billion dollars due to spillovers to other economic sectors. Several factors driving female farmers’ lower productivity are the time and bandwidth taxes from care and household responsibilities, limited access to and control of hired labor and other productive inputs, skills and information gaps, low financial liquidity, and restrictive social norms. Over 90 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa’s extreme poor, who are some of the most vulnerable to shocks, are engaged in agriculture. In the face of crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and global price shocks, that can exacerbate food insecurity, women farmers need targeted support and access to productive inputs that can secure their livelihoods and mitigate existing gender inequalities. Impact evaluation evidence from the Africa Gender Innovation Lab points toward policy solutions that can address many of these constraints and help women farmers reach their full potential.

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147 Research products, page 1 of 15
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Publisher: transcript Verlag

    Krisen erschüttern die Routinen des gesellschaftlichen Zusammenlebens. Zugleich offenbaren sie, wie Gesellschaften funktionieren, zu welchen Anpassungsleistungen sie fähig sind und über welche Ressourcen sie verfügen. Die Coronakrise hat gezeigt, wie moderne Gesellschaften auf Gesundheitskrisen reagieren und zur Bewältigung mannigfaltige Technologien einsetzen, um in einer Situation der gegenseitigen Bedrohung ihr weiteres Funktionieren sicherzustellen. Der Band widmet sich dieser Rolle von Technologien der Krise in einer theoretischen, normativen und empirischen Perspektive und versammelt Beiträge aus Soziologie, Computer Science, Ethik und Gesundheitswissenschaft.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Torvela, Riikka;
    Country: Finland

    Introduction: The outbreak of COVID-19 led the world to a new era of digitalization, as the mandatory worldwide social isolation in the first quarter of the year 2020 changed the communication between people to happen mainly through digital platforms. It is to be expected that due to time and money-saving aspects, remote working and studying will continue after the worse days of the pandemic, and hours of digital device usage will also remain massive in the future. Purpose: This scoping review aimed to identify existing research results and possible information deficiencies in the existing studies and compare empirical evidence of how the outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted the use of digital devices and, thereby, digital eye strain in adults. Methods: This scoping review consisted of eight qualitative descriptive survey studies. The main literature search was conducted on the 21st of March 2022 from three different databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Academic search premier, using key search terms ("computer vision syndrome" OR "digital eye strain") AND ("covid-19" OR "sars-cov-2"). Only studies regarding adults (age limit 18 years), available in full text and published in English, were included. Results: The reported average increase in screen time after the outbreak of COVID-19 ranged between 2.1h – 4.8h ± 2.8h, raising the total screen time to 8.65h ± 3,74h - 11.1h ± 4.5h. The prevalence of digital eye strain ranged between 66.6% to 94.3%. The increase in screen time was the most reported risk factor for DES. Young adults were found to be more symptomatic than relatively older people. Even though the prevalence of DES remained quite the same compared to pre-covid time, the frequency and intensity of symptoms became more severe while total screen time increased in all age groups. Additionally, the median DES scores were higher for those whose screen time jumped more during the pandemic. The most common symptoms were headache, dryness of the eyes, eye strain, and eye fatigue. Conclusions: The results give an alarming sign of how this new era of digitalization may lead to epidemic worsening or even chronic state of digital eye strain in the future, especially among young adults, all students, and remote workers, if total screen time remains as high as reported in recent studies, adequate breaks are not taken care of, and proper ergonomics are neglected.

  • Open Access Catalan; Valencian
    Authors: 
    Districte 5. Sarrià-Sant Gervasi;
    Country: Spain

    Presentada al Consell Plenari del Districte de Sarrià Sant Gervasi de 17-12-2020 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. Inclou 5 línies estratègiques que s’enfoquen en l’impuls d’accions i projectes que permetin mantenir i fer més competitiu i innovador el model comercial del districte. Entre els objectius principals destaquen: protegir el comerç de proximitat, potenciar la competitivitat, la innovació i la transformació digital i suport a la campanya de Nadal Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Akbari, T. T. (Taufan); Pratomo, R. R. (Rizky);
    Publisher: Padjadjaran University
    Country: Indonesia

    The pandemic is forcing universities to carry out digital transformation simultaneously. However, the pandemic opened Pandora's box revealing the fundamental weaknesses of universities that make them unprepared to adapt to changing times. However, the pandemic can be an opportunity to transform the entire workforce in universities so that their existence remains relevant. The critical factor in this transformation is the leader. Today's leaders must change from traditional to digital. Digital leaders can be a catalyst for change to oversee digital transformation in universities. Therefore, this study intends to explain how the implementation of digital leadership in universities in Indonesia, especially since the world has been hit by a pandemic. The author uses the literature study method and interviews stakeholders in universities. The author finds that three fundamental challenges must be overcome: culture and mindset, human resource competence, and infrastructure. Higher education leaders must resolve these three challenges to ensure that digital transformation runs smoothly. The author argues that universities are still relevant to producing quality human resources and abilities according to the times. To maintain the relevance and role of universities, leaders need to implement changes holistically, starting by creating a holistic grand design, increasing human resource competencies, infrastructure development, developing a new mindset, creating progressive culture, to organizational restructuring.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Districte 10. Sant Martí;
    Country: Spain

    Presentada al Consell Plenari del Districte de Sant Martí de 08-07-2021 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. S’articula al voltant de quatre línies estratègiques: la resiliència del comerç de proximitat en moments de crisi; la fidelització cap al comerç de proximitat; la competitivitat, innovació i digitalització, i l’associacionisme comercial com a element clau. Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Districte 1. Ciutat Vella;
    Country: Spain

    Aprovada pel Consell Plenari del Districte de Ciutat Vella de 15-10-2020 Mesura de govern elaborada en el context de desconfinament davant l’emergència provocada per la COVID-19. Government measure prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Medida de gobierno elaborada en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provocada por la COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    FUKUSHIMA, Akiko;
    Publisher: European University Institute
    Country: Italy

    Digital connectivity – loosely defined as connecting people through digital means promises to enhance our quality of life, as envisaged in Japan’s ‘Society 5.0’, which aims to spur economic growth and solve social problems digitally. On the other hand, digital connectivity also creates challenges and demands a quest for optimum equilibrium between economic growth and national as well as human security. The COVID-19 pandemic which erupted in late 2019 has accelerated world dependence on digital connectivity in order to sustain human contact. Digital means have allowed us to continue our lives, work and pleasure connections, and have simultaneously expanded digital risks at home and globally. The COVID-19 scenario has also demonstrated how digital technology can even threaten our sovereignty and basic values such as freedom, democracy, privacy, human rights and dignity. Japan and the EU approach the digital age with a common emphasis on leading standards to set and promote a human-centred digital connectivity. The two zones can cooperate bilaterally and beyond in responding to challenges on digital connectivity, as is stipulated in three key documents, namely Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), Japan-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) and Japan-EU Partnership

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Across Africa, agriculture is a primary sector of employment, and African women provide about 40 percent of the agricultural labor across the continent. Yet women farmers face systemic barriers to success, leading to large gender gaps in agricultural productivity that range from 23 percent in Tanzania to 66 percent in Niger. These gender gaps not only represent major untapped economic potential but could also yield sizable gains for African economies if they were closed. For instance, in Nigeria, closing the gender productivity gap in agriculture could boost gross domestic product by an estimated US2.3 billion dollars and potentially as much as US8.1 billion dollars due to spillovers to other economic sectors. Several factors driving female farmers’ lower productivity are the time and bandwidth taxes from care and household responsibilities, limited access to and control of hired labor and other productive inputs, skills and information gaps, low financial liquidity, and restrictive social norms. Over 90 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa’s extreme poor, who are some of the most vulnerable to shocks, are engaged in agriculture. In the face of crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and global price shocks, that can exacerbate food insecurity, women farmers need targeted support and access to productive inputs that can secure their livelihoods and mitigate existing gender inequalities. Impact evaluation evidence from the Africa Gender Innovation Lab points toward policy solutions that can address many of these constraints and help women farmers reach their full potential.