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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
491 Research products, page 1 of 50

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shanshan Feng; Xiao-Feng Luo; Xin Pei; Zhen Jin; Mark Lewis; Hao Wang;
    Country: Canada

    Classical epidemiological models assume mass action. However, this assumption is violated when interactions are not random. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting shelter in place social distancing directives, mass action models must be modified to account for limited social interactions. In this paper we apply a pairwise network model with moment closure to study the early transmission of COVID-19 in New York and San Francisco and to investigate the factors determining the severity and duration of outbreak in these two cities. In particular, we consider the role of population density, transmission rates and social distancing on the disease dynamics and outcomes. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a strongly negative correlation between the clustering coefficient in the pairwise model and the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. The shelter in place policy makes the clustering coefficient increase thereby reducing the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. By switching population densities in New York and San Francisco we demonstrate how the outbreak would progress if New York had the same density as San Francisco and vice-versa. The results underscore the crucial role that population density has in the epidemic outcomes. We also show that under the assumption of no further changes in policy or transmission dynamics not lifting the shelter in place policy would have little effect on final outbreak size in New York, but would reduce the final size in San Francisco by 97%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • English
    Publisher: Australia : unknown
    Country: Australia

    During the COVID-19 Lockdown, Aurora Reid from St Dominics School requested a recording of my previously-published poem 'When I Think of Australia' to use in an online poetry lesson with high school students. I created a video with new visual poetic imagery to go with the recorded narrative, plus a commentary unpacking some of the themes and issues of the poem in order to make it more accessible for students. recorded work - audio-visual

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Li, P.K.-T.; Tantisattamo, E.; Kumaraswami, L.; Liakopoulos, V.; Lui, S.-F.; Ulasi, I.; Andreoli, S.; Balducci, A.; Dupuis, S.; +11 more
    Country: Australia

    Living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hardships for patients and their care partners. Empowering patients and their care partners, including family members or friends involved in their care, may help minimize the burden and consequences of CKD-related symptoms to enable life participation. There is a need to broaden the focus on living well with kidney disease and re-engagement in life, including an emphasis on patients being in control. The World Kidney Day (WKD) Joint Steering Committee has declared 2021 the year of “Living Well with Kidney Disease” to increase education and awareness on the important goal of patient empowerment and life participation. This calls for the development and implementation of validated patient-reported outcome measures to assess and address areas of life participation in routine care. It could be supported by regulatory agencies as a metric for quality care or to support labelling claims for medicines and devices. Funding agencies could establish targeted calls for research that address the priorities of patients. Patients with kidney disease and their care partners should feel supported to live well through concerted efforts by kidney care communities including during pandemics. In the overall wellness program for kidney disease patients, the need for prevention should be reiterated. Early detection with a prolonged course of wellness despite kidney disease, after effective secondary and tertiary prevention programs, should be promoted. WKD 2021 continues to call for increased awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals, and policy-makers, applicable to both developed and developing countries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carter, Sarah;
    Publisher: Machine Ethics Research Group, School of Computer Science, University College Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    Developing artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has become a business of power. AI innovation is increasingly centralized in a few large companies – mainly, Google, Facebook, and Apple.1 Specialized data scientists - the backbone of these institutions - understand how AI functions, further creating a power dynamic between the layperson and the corporatized specialist. In the age of COVID-19, we have all become more reliant on technology companies and innovations to fulfill the needs of our new digital lives. We have little choice but to trust them in developing the AI technologies of the future. non-peer-reviewed

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shannon Fraser;
    Country: Canada

    The Covid-19 pandemic has had various effects on social, economic, and political aspects of our world. Specifically in the realm of education, teachers have been left to navigate the uncharted territory of teaching exclusively online in the first phase of the virus, beginning in March 2020, then intermittently teaching online during the 2020-2021 school year, then dealing with the impact of Covid-19 on absenteeism, student apathy, and disengagement during the 2021-2022 school year. The impact on teachers’ overall mental health and well-being was vast, and subsequent feelings of grief and burnout were experienced by many. In this qualitative study, based on grounded theory methodology, a small purposeful sampling of teachers volunteered to share their experiences of teaching in the pandemic, and to what extent they experienced the stages of grief (Kübler-Ross, 1969) and indicators of burnout (Nagoski & Nagoski, 2019). Six participants were interviewed, data collected, transcribed, analyzed, and coded to identify themes. Teaching experience varied among participants, but many similarities existed. The final part of the research and questioning centered around supports administration and leadership, both divisional and local, could offer to mitigate some of the symptoms of grief and burnout being experienced. Despite the variance in experience with grief and burnout, each participant identified with the frameworks presented, while continuing to hope for a better future for their teaching experience and in the greater world of education.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Moslinger, Emily;
    Country: Canada

    Background: Viral respiratory infections represent a significant burden of illness with high morbidity and mortality, which has been further magnified in recent years by the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Viruses including SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A Virus (Flu-A), and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) utilize the nasopharynx for viral entry, replication and infection. The nasopharynx epithelial cell mucous membrane harbors a diverse community of bacteria, called the nasal microbiota (NM). Flu-A can modulate changes in the NM community and lead to pathobiont enrichment. Therefore, here we aim to investigate the NM of individuals with SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infection, and identify correlates between the NM community and viral load (VL) and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A, and RSV by validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays. RNA extraction was performed using a Maxwell automatic nucleic acid extractor followed by 16S rRNA Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library sample preparation for NGS on a MiSeq Sequencer. QIIME II, Microbiome Analyst and PRISM 9.0.0 were used for data analysis. Results: NP swabs from 118 SARS-CoV-2, 40 Flu-A, 26 RSV positive and 45 negative controls (NC) were included. An increase in alpha and beta bacterial diversity (p<0.001) was observed in the NM of SARS-CoV-2 patients and an enrichment in Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species and depletion of Bifidobacterium and Moraxella species compared to NC’s (p<0.001). Compared to Flu-A and RSV patients, SARS-CoV-2 positives showed enrichment in Streptococcus, and depletion in Haemophilus species (p<0.002). 73/118 SARS-CoV-2 specimens were further sequenced to identify VOC lineage and stratified by VL. No significance in bacterial richness, diversity, or abundance correlated to VL. Only a significant difference in beta diversity was observed between the alpha/delta and omicron cohorts (p<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the NM community is different in individuals with respiratory illness and distinct between SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infected individuals. This study also demonstrated that NM beta diversity was different between individuals with different SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting virus-NM interplay that may be important in explaining differences in transmission potentials and pathogenesis between SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kavanagh, Shane; Shiell, Alan; Hawe, Penelope; Garvey, Kate;
    Country: Australia

    Public health agencies tasked with improving the health of communities are poorly supported by many ‘business-as-usual’ funding practices. It is commonplace to call for more funding for health promotion, but additional funding could do more harm than good if, at the same time, we do not critically examine the micro-processes that lead to health enablement – micro-processes that are instigated or amplified by funding. We are currently engaged in a university-and-policy research partnership to identify how funding mechanisms may better serve the practice of community-based health promotion. We propose three primary considerations to inform the way funds are used to enable community-based health promotion. The first is a broader understanding and legitimising of the ‘soft infrastructure’ or resources required to enhance a community’s capacity for change. The second is recognition of social relationships as key to increasing the availability and management of resources within communities. The third consideration understands communities to be complex systems and argues that funding models are needed to support the dynamic evolution of these systems. By neglecting these considerations, current funding practices may inadvertently privilege communities with pre-existing capacity for change, potentially perpetuating inequalities in health. To begin to address these issues, aspects of funding processes (e.g., stability, guidance, evaluation, and feedback requirements) could be designed to better support the flourishing of community practice. Above all, funders must recognise that they are actors in the health system and they, like other actors, should be reflexive and accountable for their actions.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
491 Research products, page 1 of 50
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shanshan Feng; Xiao-Feng Luo; Xin Pei; Zhen Jin; Mark Lewis; Hao Wang;
    Country: Canada

    Classical epidemiological models assume mass action. However, this assumption is violated when interactions are not random. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting shelter in place social distancing directives, mass action models must be modified to account for limited social interactions. In this paper we apply a pairwise network model with moment closure to study the early transmission of COVID-19 in New York and San Francisco and to investigate the factors determining the severity and duration of outbreak in these two cities. In particular, we consider the role of population density, transmission rates and social distancing on the disease dynamics and outcomes. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a strongly negative correlation between the clustering coefficient in the pairwise model and the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. The shelter in place policy makes the clustering coefficient increase thereby reducing the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. By switching population densities in New York and San Francisco we demonstrate how the outbreak would progress if New York had the same density as San Francisco and vice-versa. The results underscore the crucial role that population density has in the epidemic outcomes. We also show that under the assumption of no further changes in policy or transmission dynamics not lifting the shelter in place policy would have little effect on final outbreak size in New York, but would reduce the final size in San Francisco by 97%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • English
    Publisher: Australia : unknown
    Country: Australia

    During the COVID-19 Lockdown, Aurora Reid from St Dominics School requested a recording of my previously-published poem 'When I Think of Australia' to use in an online poetry lesson with high school students. I created a video with new visual poetic imagery to go with the recorded narrative, plus a commentary unpacking some of the themes and issues of the poem in order to make it more accessible for students. recorded work - audio-visual

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Li, P.K.-T.; Tantisattamo, E.; Kumaraswami, L.; Liakopoulos, V.; Lui, S.-F.; Ulasi, I.; Andreoli, S.; Balducci, A.; Dupuis, S.; +11 more
    Country: Australia

    Living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hardships for patients and their care partners. Empowering patients and their care partners, including family members or friends involved in their care, may help minimize the burden and consequences of CKD-related symptoms to enable life participation. There is a need to broaden the focus on living well with kidney disease and re-engagement in life, including an emphasis on patients being in control. The World Kidney Day (WKD) Joint Steering Committee has declared 2021 the year of “Living Well with Kidney Disease” to increase education and awareness on the important goal of patient empowerment and life participation. This calls for the development and implementation of validated patient-reported outcome measures to assess and address areas of life participation in routine care. It could be supported by regulatory agencies as a metric for quality care or to support labelling claims for medicines and devices. Funding agencies could establish targeted calls for research that address the priorities of patients. Patients with kidney disease and their care partners should feel supported to live well through concerted efforts by kidney care communities including during pandemics. In the overall wellness program for kidney disease patients, the need for prevention should be reiterated. Early detection with a prolonged course of wellness despite kidney disease, after effective secondary and tertiary prevention programs, should be promoted. WKD 2021 continues to call for increased awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals, and policy-makers, applicable to both developed and developing countries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carter, Sarah;
    Publisher: Machine Ethics Research Group, School of Computer Science, University College Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    Developing artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has become a business of power. AI innovation is increasingly centralized in a few large companies – mainly, Google, Facebook, and Apple.1 Specialized data scientists - the backbone of these institutions - understand how AI functions, further creating a power dynamic between the layperson and the corporatized specialist. In the age of COVID-19, we have all become more reliant on technology companies and innovations to fulfill the needs of our new digital lives. We have little choice but to trust them in developing the AI technologies of the future. non-peer-reviewed

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shannon Fraser;
    Country: Canada

    The Covid-19 pandemic has had various effects on social, economic, and political aspects of our world. Specifically in the realm of education, teachers have been left to navigate the uncharted territory of teaching exclusively online in the first phase of the virus, beginning in March 2020, then intermittently teaching online during the 2020-2021 school year, then dealing with the impact of Covid-19 on absenteeism, student apathy, and disengagement during the 2021-2022 school year. The impact on teachers’ overall mental health and well-being was vast, and subsequent feelings of grief and burnout were experienced by many. In this qualitative study, based on grounded theory methodology, a small purposeful sampling of teachers volunteered to share their experiences of teaching in the pandemic, and to what extent they experienced the stages of grief (Kübler-Ross, 1969) and indicators of burnout (Nagoski & Nagoski, 2019). Six participants were interviewed, data collected, transcribed, analyzed, and coded to identify themes. Teaching experience varied among participants, but many similarities existed. The final part of the research and questioning centered around supports administration and leadership, both divisional and local, could offer to mitigate some of the symptoms of grief and burnout being experienced. Despite the variance in experience with grief and burnout, each participant identified with the frameworks presented, while continuing to hope for a better future for their teaching experience and in the greater world of education.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Moslinger, Emily;
    Country: Canada

    Background: Viral respiratory infections represent a significant burden of illness with high morbidity and mortality, which has been further magnified in recent years by the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Viruses including SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A Virus (Flu-A), and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) utilize the nasopharynx for viral entry, replication and infection. The nasopharynx epithelial cell mucous membrane harbors a diverse community of bacteria, called the nasal microbiota (NM). Flu-A can modulate changes in the NM community and lead to pathobiont enrichment. Therefore, here we aim to investigate the NM of individuals with SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infection, and identify correlates between the NM community and viral load (VL) and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A, and RSV by validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays. RNA extraction was performed using a Maxwell automatic nucleic acid extractor followed by 16S rRNA Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library sample preparation for NGS on a MiSeq Sequencer. QIIME II, Microbiome Analyst and PRISM 9.0.0 were used for data analysis. Results: NP swabs from 118 SARS-CoV-2, 40 Flu-A, 26 RSV positive and 45 negative controls (NC) were included. An increase in alpha and beta bacterial diversity (p<0.001) was observed in the NM of SARS-CoV-2 patients and an enrichment in Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species and depletion of Bifidobacterium and Moraxella species compared to NC’s (p<0.001). Compared to Flu-A and RSV patients, SARS-CoV-2 positives showed enrichment in Streptococcus, and depletion in Haemophilus species (p<0.002). 73/118 SARS-CoV-2 specimens were further sequenced to identify VOC lineage and stratified by VL. No significance in bacterial richness, diversity, or abundance correlated to VL. Only a significant difference in beta diversity was observed between the alpha/delta and omicron cohorts (p<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the NM community is different in individuals with respiratory illness and distinct between SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infected individuals. This study also demonstrated that NM beta diversity was different between individuals with different SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting virus-NM interplay that may be important in explaining differences in transmission potentials and pathogenesis between SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kavanagh, Shane; Shiell, Alan; Hawe, Penelope; Garvey, Kate;
    Country: Australia

    Public health agencies tasked with improving the health of communities are poorly supported by many ‘business-as-usual’ funding practices. It is commonplace to call for more funding for health promotion, but additional funding could do more harm than good if, at the same time, we do not critically examine the micro-processes that lead to health enablement – micro-processes that are instigated or amplified by funding. We are currently engaged in a university-and-policy research partnership to identify how funding mechanisms may better serve the practice of community-based health promotion. We propose three primary considerations to inform the way funds are used to enable community-based health promotion. The first is a broader understanding and legitimising of the ‘soft infrastructure’ or resources required to enhance a community’s capacity for change. The second is recognition of social relationships as key to increasing the availability and management of resources within communities. The third consideration understands communities to be complex systems and argues that funding models are needed to support the dynamic evolution of these systems. By neglecting these considerations, current funding practices may inadvertently privilege communities with pre-existing capacity for change, potentially perpetuating inequalities in health. To begin to address these issues, aspects of funding processes (e.g., stability, guidance, evaluation, and feedback requirements) could be designed to better support the flourishing of community practice. Above all, funders must recognise that they are actors in the health system and they, like other actors, should be reflexive and accountable for their actions.