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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arnot, Megan; Brandl, Eva; Campbell, O L K; Chen, Yuan; +11 Authors

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has brought science into the public eye and to the attention of governments more than ever before. Much of this attention is on work in epidemiology, virology and public health, with most behavioural advice in public health focusing squarely on ‘proximate’ determinants of behaviour. While epidemiological models are powerful tools to predict the spread of disease when human behaviour is stable, most do not incorporate behavioural change. The evolutionary basis of our preferences and the cultural evolutionary dynamics of our beliefs drive behavioural change, so understanding these evolutionary processes can help inform individual and government decision-making in the face of a pandemic.Lay summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought behavioural sciences into the public eye: Without vaccinations, stopping the spread of the virus must rely on behaviour change by limiting contact between people. On the face of it, “stop seeing people” sounds simple. In practice, this is hard. Here we outline how an evolutionary perspective on behaviour change can provide additional insights. Evolutionary theory postulates that our psychology and behaviour did not evolve to maximize our health or that of others. Instead, individuals are expected to act to maximise their inclusive fitness (i.e, spreading our genes) – which can lead to a conflict between behaviours that are in the best interests for the individual, and behaviours that stop the spread of the virus. By examining the ultimate explanations of behaviour related to pandemic-management (such as behavioural compliance and social distancing), we conclude that “good of the group” arguments and “one size fits all” policies are unlikely to encourage behaviour change over the long-term. Sustained behaviour change to keep pandemics at bay is much more likely to emerge from environmental change, so governments and policy makers may need to facilitate significant social change – such as improving life experiences for disadvantaged groups.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Evolution, Medicine ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Evolution, Medicine and Public Health
    Article
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Evolution, Medicine ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Evolution, Medicine and Public Health
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • Authors: Kalika, Michel;

    International audience; Cet ouvrage s’est imposé à nous en raison de l’ampleur, la brutalité et la soudaineté de la crise de la Covid-19. Nous avons en effet immédiatement considéré qu’au sein du Business Science Institute, organisation académique internationale en réseau dédiée à un programme d’Executive Doctorate in Business Administration, nous nous devions, sans attendre, de lancer plusieurs initiatives en lien avec nos doctorants, des managers situés dans plus d’une trentaine de pays et nos professeurs internationaux.La première série d’initiatives visait à collecter de l’information auprès des managers confrontés à la crise.La seconde traduisait notre volonté de mobiliser la communauté des professeurs du Business Science Institute en considérant que la crise allait nécessairement remettre en cause certains aspects du management des organisations sur lesquels ils travaillent avec leurs doctorants.Ce livre auquel ont participé 27 professeurs de management ainsi que 3 docteurs du Business Science Institute en est aujourd’hui le résultat.Il est structuré en 4 parties complémentaires :1) Impact de la crise : les enseignements des enquêtes du Business Science Institute ;2) Impact de la crise sur le management du secteur de la santé ;3) Impact de la crise sur la pensée du management ;4) Impact de la crise sur les décisions managériales.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Levard, Damien; Buendia, Izaskun; Lanquetin, Anastasia; Glavan, Martina; +2 Authors

    For the last two decades, researchers have placed hopes in a new era in which a combination of reperfusion and neuroprotection would revolutionize the treatment of stroke. Nevertheless, despite the thousands of papers available in the literature showing positive results in preclinical stroke models, randomized clinical trials have failed to show efficacy. It seems clear now that the existing data obtained in preclinical research have depicted an incomplete picture of stroke pathophysiology. In order to ameliorate bench-to-bed translation, in this review we first describe the main actors on stroke inflammatory and immune responses based on the available preclinical data, highlighting the fact that the link between leukocyte infiltration, lesion volume and neurological outcome remains unclear. We then describe what is known on neuroinflammation and immune responses in stroke patients, and summarize the results of the clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs. In order to understand the gap between clinical trials and preclinical results on stroke, we discuss in detail the experimental results that served as the basis for the summarized clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs, focusing on (i) experimental stroke models, (ii) the timing and selection of outcome measuring, (iii) alternative entry routes for leukocytes into the ischemic region, and (iv) factors affecting stroke outcome such as gender differences, ageing, comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption and previous infections like Covid-19. We can do better for stroke treatment, especially when targeting inflammation following stroke. We need to re-think the design of stroke experimental setups, notably by (i) using clinically relevant models of stroke, (ii) including both radiological and neurological outcomes, (iii) performing long-term follow-up studies, (iv) conducting large-scale preclinical stroke trials, and (v) including stroke comorbidities in preclinical research. Highlights • The different experimental approaches may model different aspects of stroke. • Drugs need to be tested in several clinically relevant experimental stroke models. • Clot composition, type of arterial occlusion and recanalization need to be considered. • Outcomes should include acute but also long-term measurements. • Both infarct volume and behavioral deficits need to be systematically measured. • Including coexisting risk factors in preclinical stroke research is mandatory. • Performing multicenter studies may increase the reliability of preclinical results.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    HAL-Inserm
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY NC
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sakkila, Laila; Tatkeu, C.; Rivenq, Atika; Zaidouni, J.; +1 Authors

    Due to the current events related to Covid-19, the conference originally planned for July 2020 has been postponed to April 7-9, 2021.The conference will be organized virtually by videoconference. ORAL; International audience; In this paper, a study of UWB receivers in terms of detection theory is presented. The UWB radar which is presented in many works previously [1]-[3] has many applications. For road UWB radar application, the receiver based on correlation is the optimum receiver [4]. In fact, it maximizes the probability of detection. We will consider, in this study, a correlator receiver based on a threshold detection method. As in narrowband [5] [6], we will describe the theoretical study that evaluates the performance of the UWB receiver based on correlation in terms of detection and false alarm probabilities. Then a study of curves showing threshold receiver operating characteristics (ROC system), based on correlation and destined to be used for a UWB radar is presented. The study is original because it is presented for the first time in a UWB radar system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hal.archives...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1109/isivc4...
    Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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    Conference object . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hal.archives...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1109/isivc4...
      Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Conference object . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Picot, Valentina Sanchez; Bénet, Thomas; Messaoudi, Melina; Telles, Jean-Noël; +26 Authors

    Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Hospices Civils de Lyon. Edouard Herriot Hospital. Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit. Lyon, Grance / Universit of Lyon 1, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit. Lyon, France. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. University of Health Sciences. Faculty of Pharmacy. Phnom Penh, Cambodia. National Pediatric Hospital. Department of Pneumology. Phnom Penh, Cambodia. MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens. Dr. Christophe Mérieux Laboratory. Fondation Mérieux. Institute of Pathogen Biology (IPB), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) & Peking Union Medical College. Beijing, China. Capital Medical University. Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children. National Key Discipline of Pediatrics. Ministry of Education. Beijing Pediatric Research Institute. Beijing Children’s Hospital. Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. GHESKIO (Groupe Haïtien d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes) Centers. Port au Prince, Haiti. GHESKIO (Groupe Haïtien d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes) Centers. Port au Prince, Haiti. Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University. Lucknow, India. Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University. Lucknow, India. KEM Hospital Research Center. Pune, India. KEM Hospital Research Center. Pune, India. Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant. Antananarivo, Madagascar. Fondation Mérieux. Centre d’Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM); Antananarivo, Madagascar. Fondation Mérieux. Centre d’Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM); Antananarivo, Madagascar. Gabriel Touré Hospital. Bamako, Mali. Centre d`Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM). Bamako, Mali. Mongolian Academy of Medical Sciences. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Bayanzurkh District General Hospital. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Research Institute of health. Asuncion, Paraguay. Hospital Pediátrico ! Niños de Acosta ¨Nu". San Lorenzo, Paraguay. Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Vírus Respiratórios e Sarampo. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Vírus Respiratórios e Sarampo. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Hospices Civils de Lyon. Edouard Herriot Hospital. Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit. Lyon, Grance / Universit of Lyon 1, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit. Lyon, France. Fondation Mérieux. Centre Internationale Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI). Emerging Pathogens Laboratory. Lyon, France. Background: Data on the etiologies of pneumonia among children are inadequate, especially in developing countries. The principal objective is to undertake a multicenter incident case–control study of <5-year-old children hospitalized with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries, aiming to identify the causative agents involved in pneumonia while assessing individual and microbial factors associated with the risk of severe pneumonia. Methods/design: A multicenter case–control study, based on the GABRIEL network, is ongoing. Ten study sites are located in 9 countries over 3 continents: Brazil, Cambodia, China, Haiti, India, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. At least 1,000 incident cases and 1,000 controls will be enrolled and matched for age and date. Cases are hospitalized children <5 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, and the controls are children without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Respiratory specimens are collected from all enrolled subjects to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood from pneumonia cases is being tested for 3 major bacteria. S. pneumoniae-positive specimens are serotyped. Urine samples from cases only are tested for detection of antimicrobial activity. The association between procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and pathogens is being evaluated. A discovery platform will enable pathogen identification in undiagnosed samples. Discussion: This multicenter study will provide descriptive results for better understanding of pathogens responsible for pneumonia among children in developing countries. The identification of determinants related to microorganisms associated with pneumonia and its severity should facilitate treatment and prevention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMC Infectious Diseases
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    BMC Infectious Diseases
    Article
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    Article . 2014
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      BMC Infectious Diseases
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    Authors: Bourlon, Fabien;

    Avec la crise du coronavirus, les destinations lointaines de nature comme la Patagonie chilienne sont inquiètes d’un effondrement du tourisme. Les communautés locales, apeurées par les risques liés à l’accueil de visiteurs, se replient et se protègent. Les entrepreneurs espèrent un rapide retour à la « normalité » d’une zone relativement épargnée par la COVID-19, mais craignent la fin du boom touristique, car prendre l’avion restera anxiogène dans un contexte de pandémie. Ces destinations devraient recentrer leur offre afin de capter une clientèle de proximité, mais cela semble un défi peu rentable pour les zones isolées. Alors que les entrepreneurs affinent leur plan marketing et les services d’État leurs protocoles d’accueil sécurisés, les animateurs de projets touristiques écologiques, axés sur la conservation, le tourisme rural et les migrations d’agrément, font valoir leurs atouts. L’actuelle crise pourrait mettre fin au tourisme de masse, à l’hypermobilité vers des hauts lieux et aux projets basés sur la rentabilité. La crise socioenvironnementale globale est l’occasion de repenser les rapports à la nature et de renforcer les systèmes touristiques locaux, pensés comme des lieux de vie, basés sur des économies rurales respectueuses de l’environnement, les échanges culturels, scientifiques et traditionnels, attirants autant pour les clientèles nationales qu’étrangères. With the coronavirus crisis, remote nature destinations like Chilean Patagonia are worried of a possible collapse of tourism. Local communities, frightened by the risks of welcoming visitors, are withdrawing and protecting themselves. Entrepreneurs hope for a rapid return to “normality” in an area relatively untouched by COVID-19 but they fear the end of the tourism boom, as flying will remain an anxiety-provoking issue in a post-pandemic situation. These destinations have to refocus their offer in order to capture a national clientele, but this seems an unprofitable challenge for isolated areas. While entrepreneurs are refining their marketing plans and government services are establishing their secure reception protocols, leaders of ecological and conservation tourism projects along with rural tourism and leisure migration stakeholders are highlighting their assets. The current crisis could put an end to mass tourism, hypermobilities, projects based on high profitability and overtourism in iconic places. In that sense, the present global socioenvironmental crisis is an opportunity to rethink our relationship with nature and seek ways to strengthen local tourism systems, conceived as places to live and based on environmentally friendly rural economies, cultural, scientific, and traditional exchanges, attractive both to national and foreign visitors.

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  • Authors: Pellier, Jean-Denis;

    International audience; À propos de l'ordonnance n° 2020-315 du 25 mars 2020

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  • Authors: Le Du, Anna;

    Although difficult to define, small-scale fisheries contributes to food security, sustainable livelihoods and the fight against poverty, particularly in developing countries. Despite this importance, this sector is disadvantaged because of its typical remoteness, lack of infrastructure and marginal political power. The COVID19 pandemic and the introduction of new, more environmentally-conscious consumption patterns have demonstrated the importance of small-scale fisheries. Many associations and companies are campaigning to give this sector greater importance and consideration. This is particularly the case with the host company Poiscaille, which specializes in the small-scale fishing products. In order to optimise this marketing, various tools have been developed within the host company to facilitate the management of the supply, but also externally with the implementation of a catch reporting application.; Bien que complexe à définir, la petite pêche contribue à l’alimentation, à la sécurité alimentaire, aux moyens d’existence durables et à la lutte contre la pauvreté, en particulier dans les pays en développement. Malgré cette importance, ce secteur est désavantagé en raison de son éloignement typique, de son manque d’infrastructures et de son pouvoir politique marginal. La pandémie du COVID19 et l’arrivée de nouveaux modes de consommation plus soucieux de l’environnement ont montré l’importance de la pêche à petite échelle. De nombreuses associations et entreprises militent pour donner à ce secteur une plus grande importance et une meilleure considération. C’est notamment le cas de l’entreprise d’accueil Poiscaille qui est spécialisée dans la vente des produits halieutiques issus de la petite pêche, sous forme de casier de la mer. Pour optimiser cette mise en marché différents outils ont été mis en place au sein de l’entreprise d’accueil pour faciliter la gestion de l’approvisionnement et permettre d’accroitre son activité, mais aussi en externe avec la mise en place d’une application de déclaration des captures.

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    Authors: Charlotte Lombardi; Maya Ayach; Lionel Beaurepaire; Mélanie Chenon; +4 Authors

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) - a member of the alphavirus-like supergroup of viruses - serves as a model system for positive-stranded RNA virus membrane-bound replication. TYMV encodes a precursor replication polyprotein that is processed by the endoproteolytic activity of its internal cysteine proteinase domain (PRO). We recently reported that PRO is actually a multifunctional enzyme with a specific ubiquitin hydrolase (DUB) activity that contributes to viral infectivity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the 150-residue PRO. Strikingly, PRO displays no homology to other processing proteinases from positive-stranded RNA viruses, including that of alphaviruses. Instead, the closest structural homologs of PRO are DUBs from the Ovarian tumor (OTU) family. In the crystal, one molecule's C-terminus inserts into the catalytic cleft of the next, providing a view of the N-terminal product complex in replication polyprotein processing. This allows us to locate the specificity determinants of PRO for its proteinase substrates. In addition to the catalytic cleft, at the exit of which the active site is unusually pared down and solvent-exposed, a key element in molecular recognition by PRO is a lobe N-terminal to the catalytic domain. Docking models and the activities of PRO and PRO mutants in a deubiquitylating assay suggest that this N-terminal lobe is also likely involved in PRO's DUB function. Our data thus establish that DUBs can evolve to specifically hydrolyze both iso- and endopeptide bonds with different sequences. This is achieved by the use of multiple specificity determinants, as recognition of substrate patches distant from the cleavage sites allows a relaxed specificity of PRO at the sites themselves. Our results thus shed light on how such a compact protein achieves a diversity of key functions in viral genome replication and host-pathogen interaction. Author Summary Positive-stranded RNA viruses are ultimate parasites. In order to replicate their genome, they first need to invade a host cell and, with usually very limited viral genetic material, subvert the host's molecular machinery. Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is an excellent model system for studying positive-stranded RNA virus replication. As for many such viruses, TYMV genome replication is dependent on the activity of a viral proteinase (PRO) to properly process the virus' replication molecules. We have recently established that PRO is a multifunctional enzyme and is also used by TYMV to subvert a key host defense against pathogens. We report here the atomic structure of PRO as well as new functional data on PRO's interaction with the host. Our data shed light on how PRO can perform such multiple activities despite its small size, providing TYMV with a Swiss army knife in its ongoing fight with a vastly more complex host.

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    Article . 2013
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    Authors: Federica Somma; Paolo Bartolomeo; Federica Vallone; Federica Vallone; +7 Authors

    BackgroundThe measures taken to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, such as the lockdown in Italy, do impact psychological health; yet, less is known about their effect on cognitive functioning. The transactional theory of stress predicts reciprocal influences between perceived stress and cognitive performance. However, the effects of a period of stress due to social isolation on spatial cognition and exploration have been little examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on spatial cognition tasks, particularly those concerning spatial exploration, and the physiological leftward bias known as pseudoneglect. A right-hemisphere asymmetry for spatial attention processes crucially contributes to pseudoneglect. Other evidence indicates a predominantly right-hemisphere activity in stressful situations. We also analyzed the effects of lockdown on coping strategies, which typically show an opposite pattern of hemispheric asymmetry, favoring the left hemisphere. If so, then pseudoneglect should increase during the lockdown and be negatively correlated with the efficacy of coping strategies.MethodsOne week before the start of the lockdown due to COVID-19 in Italy (T1), we had collected data from a battery of behavioral tests including tasks of peri-personal spatial cognition. During the quarantine period, from late April to early May 2020 (T2), we repeated the testing sessions with a subgroup of the same participants (47 right-handed students, mean age = 20, SD = 1.33). At both testing sessions, participants performed digitized neuropsychological tests, including a Cancellation task, Radial Arm Maze task, and Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Participants also completed a newly developed COVID-19 Student Stress Scale, based on transactional models of stress, and the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced—New Italian Version (COPE-NIV) to assess coping orientation.ResultsThe tendency to start cancelation from a left-sided item, to explore first a left-sided arm of the maze, and to choose erroneous response items on the left side of the page on Raven’s matrices increased from T1 to T2. The degree of pseudoneglect increment positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with Positive Attitude and Problem-Solving COPE-NIV subscales.ConclusionLockdown-related stress may have contributed to increase leftward bias during quarantine through a greater activation of the right hemisphere. On the other hand, pseudoneglect was decreased for better coping participants, perhaps as a consequence of a more balanced hemispheric activity in these individuals.

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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.i...
      Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arnot, Megan; Brandl, Eva; Campbell, O L K; Chen, Yuan; +11 Authors

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has brought science into the public eye and to the attention of governments more than ever before. Much of this attention is on work in epidemiology, virology and public health, with most behavioural advice in public health focusing squarely on ‘proximate’ determinants of behaviour. While epidemiological models are powerful tools to predict the spread of disease when human behaviour is stable, most do not incorporate behavioural change. The evolutionary basis of our preferences and the cultural evolutionary dynamics of our beliefs drive behavioural change, so understanding these evolutionary processes can help inform individual and government decision-making in the face of a pandemic.Lay summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought behavioural sciences into the public eye: Without vaccinations, stopping the spread of the virus must rely on behaviour change by limiting contact between people. On the face of it, “stop seeing people” sounds simple. In practice, this is hard. Here we outline how an evolutionary perspective on behaviour change can provide additional insights. Evolutionary theory postulates that our psychology and behaviour did not evolve to maximize our health or that of others. Instead, individuals are expected to act to maximise their inclusive fitness (i.e, spreading our genes) – which can lead to a conflict between behaviours that are in the best interests for the individual, and behaviours that stop the spread of the virus. By examining the ultimate explanations of behaviour related to pandemic-management (such as behavioural compliance and social distancing), we conclude that “good of the group” arguments and “one size fits all” policies are unlikely to encourage behaviour change over the long-term. Sustained behaviour change to keep pandemics at bay is much more likely to emerge from environmental change, so governments and policy makers may need to facilitate significant social change – such as improving life experiences for disadvantaged groups.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Evolution, Medicine ...arrow_drop_down
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    Evolution, Medicine and Public Health
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    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Evolution, Medicine ...arrow_drop_down
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      Evolution, Medicine and Public Health
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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  • Authors: Kalika, Michel;

    International audience; Cet ouvrage s’est imposé à nous en raison de l’ampleur, la brutalité et la soudaineté de la crise de la Covid-19. Nous avons en effet immédiatement considéré qu’au sein du Business Science Institute, organisation académique internationale en réseau dédiée à un programme d’Executive Doctorate in Business Administration, nous nous devions, sans attendre, de lancer plusieurs initiatives en lien avec nos doctorants, des managers situés dans plus d’une trentaine de pays et nos professeurs internationaux.La première série d’initiatives visait à collecter de l’information auprès des managers confrontés à la crise.La seconde traduisait notre volonté de mobiliser la communauté des professeurs du Business Science Institute en considérant que la crise allait nécessairement remettre en cause certains aspects du management des organisations sur lesquels ils travaillent avec leurs doctorants.Ce livre auquel ont participé 27 professeurs de management ainsi que 3 docteurs du Business Science Institute en est aujourd’hui le résultat.Il est structuré en 4 parties complémentaires :1) Impact de la crise : les enseignements des enquêtes du Business Science Institute ;2) Impact de la crise sur le management du secteur de la santé ;3) Impact de la crise sur la pensée du management ;4) Impact de la crise sur les décisions managériales.