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325 Research products, page 1 of 33

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  • PAHO COVID19

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  • Open Access English

    What is this? Traditional Chinese medicine and other forms of herbal medicine have been suggested as treatments for COVID-19 patients. Several potentially relevant systematic reviews have been done and the findings are summarised here. More details on these reviews, including citations and links to their full text, are available further down this page. What was found: At the time of these reviews, the included studies suggest that herbal and traditional Chinese medicine (alone or in combination with Western treatment) may improve symptoms, and other patient outcomes, for patients with COVID-19 or other respiratory illnesses. However, the conclusions of these reviews should be interpreted with caution because of the generally low quality of their included studies. The Xiong review (searches done up to 21 June 2020) reported that the potential benefits applied to COVID-19 patients irrespective of disease severity. The other reviews were limited to patients with mild-moderate infection or did not comment on disease severity. The effects of herbal and traditional Chinese medicine on mortality for COVID-19 patients with COVID-19 or other respiratory illnesses are uncertain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raymond, Meriel; Ching-A-Sue, Gemma; Oliver, Van Hecke;

    Mast cells are present in mucosal and connective tissues throughout the body. They participate in the innate and adaptive immune process and have an important role in inflammation and allergy. Mast cells located in the submucosa of the respiratory tract are known to be activated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Once activated, degranulation occurs releasing histamine and proteases. Late mast-cell activation leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Vitamin D is required to maintain the stability of mast cells, and Vitamin D deficiency results in mast cell activation.

  • Open Access English

    Cases with suspected or possible reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 have been recently reported in different countries. In many of these cases, it is uncertain if the individual’s Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test remained positive for a long period of time following the first episode of infection or whether it represents a true reinfection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Buck, Emmy et. al.;

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effectiveness of different approaches for promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change, and factors affecting implementation, in low and middle‐income countries. The review summarises evidence from 42 impact evaluations, and from 28 qualitative studies. Community‐based approaches which include a sanitation component can increase handwashing with soap at key times; use of latrines and safe disposal of faeces; and reduce the frequency of open defecation. Social marketing seems less effective. The approach mainly shows an effect on sanitation outcomes when interventions combine handwashing and sanitation components. Sanitation and hygiene messaging with a focus on handwashing with soap has an effect after the intervention has ended, but there is little impact on sanitation outcomes. However, these effects are not sustainable in the long term. Using elements of psychosocial theory in a small‐scale handwashing promotion intervention, or adding theory‐based elements such as infrastructure promotion or public commitment to an existing promotional approach, seem promising for handwashing with soap. None of the approaches described have consistent effects on behavioural factors such as knowledge, skills and attitude. There are no consistent effects on health.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Government of Canada;

    Introduction: The public health threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic has led all levels of government to take unprecedented measures to help slow the spread of COVID-19 and thereby minimise serious illness, death and social disruption resulting from the pandemic. Difficult choices are being made in a context of considerable uncertainty, as knowledge about COVID-19 and the impact of unprecedented public health measures evolves rapidly. Examples include decisions about allocation of scarce resources, prioritization guidelines for vaccines and medical countermeasures, curtailment of individual freedoms, and closing or re-opening public spaces, schools and businesses. Recognizing the fundamental ethical nature of these choices can help decision makers identify competing values and interests, weigh relevant considerations, identify options and make well-considered and justifiable decisions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Government of Canada;

    General recommendations: Administration of vaccines in accordance with the immunization schedules summarized in the following tables will provide optimal protection from vaccine preventable diseases for most individuals. However, modifications of the recommended schedule may be necessary due to missed appointments or illness. In general, interruption of an immunization series does not require restarting the vaccine series, regardless of the interval between doses. Individuals with interrupted immunization schedules should be vaccinated to complete the appropriate schedule for their current age. Refer to Timing of vaccine administration in Part 1 and vaccine-specific chapters in Part 4 for additional information. Similar, but not identical, vaccines may be available from different manufacturers; therefore, it is useful to review the relevant vaccine-specific chapters in the Canadian Immunization Guide as well as the manufacturer's product leaflet or product monograph before administering a vaccine. Refer to Principles of vaccine interchangeability in Part 1 for information about the interchangeability of similar vaccines from different manufacturers. Product monographs are periodically updated; it is a best practice to consult the information contained within the product monographs available through Health Canada's Drug Product Database.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heneghan, Carl; Aronson, Jeff; Hobbs, Richard; Mahtani, Kamal;

    The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the risk faced by older adults, who are more susceptible to complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, usually as a result of pneumonia. Comorbidities, impaired immunity and frailty, including a reduced ability to cough and to clear secretions from the lungs, can all contribute to this complication. Older people are therefore more likely to develop severe pneumonia, suffer from respiratory failure, and die. Viruses are thought to cause about 50% of cases of pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is generally less severe than bacterial pneumonia but can act as a precursor to it. Preventing any pneumonia in older adults is preferable to treating it. Identification of the early stages of pneumonia in older patients can prove difficult. Traditional symptoms and signs, including fever, may be absent. Limited evidence suggests that many tests that are useful in younger patients do not help diagnose infections in older adults. The onset of pneumonia in elderly people can often be rapid, and the prognosis is poor in severe pneumonia: as many as one in five will die. The older you are, the more prevalent severe pneumonia becomes.

  • Open Access English

    Rationale: The COVID‐19 pandemic affects diverse groups of women and men differently. The risks and consequences are disproportionately felt by certain groups, especially those living in situations of vulnerability and those who experience discrimination. It is vital that country responses to COVID-19 consider equity, gender, ethnicity, and human rights perspectives to: • prevent the expansion of inequalities; • account for the everyday lived realities of different groups that may affect the success of measures. Objectives: • To function as a “first port of call” for national health policy makers to support their efforts to integrate and enhance equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights considerations and approaches into measures responding to COVID-19; • To provide links to sources of related information and guidelines, where available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pan American Health Organization;

    Alcohol is often used for socialization and by some to cope with difficult emotions. As the rates of anxiety, fear, depression, boredom, and uncertainty became more commonly reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption is reported to have increased as well, despite the closure of licensed premises. However, the impact of the pandemic on alcohol consumption and related harms remains unknown.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
325 Research products, page 1 of 33
  • Open Access English

    What is this? Traditional Chinese medicine and other forms of herbal medicine have been suggested as treatments for COVID-19 patients. Several potentially relevant systematic reviews have been done and the findings are summarised here. More details on these reviews, including citations and links to their full text, are available further down this page. What was found: At the time of these reviews, the included studies suggest that herbal and traditional Chinese medicine (alone or in combination with Western treatment) may improve symptoms, and other patient outcomes, for patients with COVID-19 or other respiratory illnesses. However, the conclusions of these reviews should be interpreted with caution because of the generally low quality of their included studies. The Xiong review (searches done up to 21 June 2020) reported that the potential benefits applied to COVID-19 patients irrespective of disease severity. The other reviews were limited to patients with mild-moderate infection or did not comment on disease severity. The effects of herbal and traditional Chinese medicine on mortality for COVID-19 patients with COVID-19 or other respiratory illnesses are uncertain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raymond, Meriel; Ching-A-Sue, Gemma; Oliver, Van Hecke;

    Mast cells are present in mucosal and connective tissues throughout the body. They participate in the innate and adaptive immune process and have an important role in inflammation and allergy. Mast cells located in the submucosa of the respiratory tract are known to be activated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Once activated, degranulation occurs releasing histamine and proteases. Late mast-cell activation leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Vitamin D is required to maintain the stability of mast cells, and Vitamin D deficiency results in mast cell activation.

  • Open Access English

    Cases with suspected or possible reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 have been recently reported in different countries. In many of these cases, it is uncertain if the individual’s Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test remained positive for a long period of time following the first episode of infection or whether it represents a true reinfection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Buck, Emmy et. al.;

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effectiveness of different approaches for promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change, and factors affecting implementation, in low and middle‐income countries. The review summarises evidence from 42 impact evaluations, and from 28 qualitative studies. Community‐based approaches which include a sanitation component can increase handwashing with soap at key times; use of latrines and safe disposal of faeces; and reduce the frequency of open defecation. Social marketing seems less effective. The approach mainly shows an effect on sanitation outcomes when interventions combine handwashing and sanitation components. Sanitation and hygiene messaging with a focus on handwashing with soap has an effect after the intervention has ended, but there is little impact on sanitation outcomes. However, these effects are not sustainable in the long term. Using elements of psychosocial theory in a small‐scale handwashing promotion intervention, or adding theory‐based elements such as infrastructure promotion or public commitment to an existing promotional approach, seem promising for handwashing with soap. None of the approaches described have consistent effects on behavioural factors such as knowledge, skills and attitude. There are no consistent effects on health.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Government of Canada;

    Introduction: The public health threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic has led all levels of government to take unprecedented measures to help slow the spread of COVID-19 and thereby minimise serious illness, death and social disruption resulting from the pandemic. Difficult choices are being made in a context of considerable uncertainty, as knowledge about COVID-19 and the impact of unprecedented public health measures evolves rapidly. Examples include decisions about allocation of scarce resources, prioritization guidelines for vaccines and medical countermeasures, curtailment of individual freedoms, and closing or re-opening public spaces, schools and businesses. Recognizing the fundamental ethical nature of these choices can help decision makers identify competing values and interests, weigh relevant considerations, identify options and make well-considered and justifiable decisions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Government of Canada;

    General recommendations: Administration of vaccines in accordance with the immunization schedules summarized in the following tables will provide optimal protection from vaccine preventable diseases for most individuals. However, modifications of the recommended schedule may be necessary due to missed appointments or illness. In general, interruption of an immunization series does not require restarting the vaccine series, regardless of the interval between doses. Individuals with interrupted immunization schedules should be vaccinated to complete the appropriate schedule for their current age. Refer to Timing of vaccine administration in Part 1 and vaccine-specific chapters in Part 4 for additional information. Similar, but not identical, vaccines may be available from different manufacturers; therefore, it is useful to review the relevant vaccine-specific chapters in the Canadian Immunization Guide as well as the manufacturer's product leaflet or product monograph before administering a vaccine. Refer to Principles of vaccine interchangeability in Part 1 for information about the interchangeability of similar vaccines from different manufacturers. Product monographs are periodically updated; it is a best practice to consult the information contained within the product monographs available through Health Canada's Drug Product Database.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heneghan, Carl; Aronson, Jeff; Hobbs, Richard; Mahtani, Kamal;

    The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the risk faced by older adults, who are more susceptible to complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, usually as a result of pneumonia. Comorbidities, impaired immunity and frailty, including a reduced ability to cough and to clear secretions from the lungs, can all contribute to this complication. Older people are therefore more likely to develop severe pneumonia, suffer from respiratory failure, and die. Viruses are thought to cause about 50% of cases of pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is generally less severe than bacterial pneumonia but can act as a precursor to it. Preventing any pneumonia in older adults is preferable to treating it. Identification of the early stages of pneumonia in older patients can prove difficult. Traditional symptoms and signs, including fever, may be absent. Limited evidence suggests that many tests that are useful in younger patients do not help diagnose infections in older adults. The onset of pneumonia in elderly people can often be rapid, and the prognosis is poor in severe pneumonia: as many as one in five will die. The older you are, the more prevalent severe pneumonia becomes.

  • Open Access English

    Rationale: The COVID‐19 pandemic affects diverse groups of women and men differently. The risks and consequences are disproportionately felt by certain groups, especially those living in situations of vulnerability and those who experience discrimination. It is vital that country responses to COVID-19 consider equity, gender, ethnicity, and human rights perspectives to: • prevent the expansion of inequalities; • account for the everyday lived realities of different groups that may affect the success of measures. Objectives: • To function as a “first port of call” for national health policy makers to support their efforts to integrate and enhance equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights considerations and approaches into measures responding to COVID-19; • To provide links to sources of related information and guidelines, where available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pan American Health Organization;

    Alcohol is often used for socialization and by some to cope with difficult emotions. As the rates of anxiety, fear, depression, boredom, and uncertainty became more commonly reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption is reported to have increased as well, despite the closure of licensed premises. However, the impact of the pandemic on alcohol consumption and related harms remains unknown.