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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Richard Paul; Olivier Telle; Samuel Benkimoun;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the implementation of unprecedented public health intervention measures, not least the lockdown of countries worldwide. In our hyperconnected world exemplified by social media, it is now possible to derive quantitative measures of human mobilities at useful spatial scales. In this chapter we discuss how the use of Facebook data enables us not only to capture the impact of lockdown on human mobility but also to assess how changes in mobility contribute to the spread of the virus. By performing a comparative analysis across four countries of differing levels of lockdown—Sweden, US, France and Colombia—we show that mobility contributes a substantial amount to the spread of the disease. This contribution is strongest when the local number of cases is low, but, importantly, is maintained even when the virus is widespread. Current epidemiological models do not take into account such mobility patterns and yet there exists a developed theoretical framework within which mobility can be included. Inclusion of mobility data would allow public health authorities to focus on highly connected hubs of infection and, because mobility patterns are relatively stable over time, would also enable forecasting of how the spread of this or another novel virus is going to occur. Anticipating epidemics and their spread is key for developing suitable but targeted intervention strategies and avoiding draconian lockdowns that are so harmful to the economy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Quentin Pagneux; Alain Roussel; Hiba Saada; Christian Cambillau; Béatrice Amigues; Vincent Delauzun; Ilka Engelmann; Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou; Judith Ogiez; Anne Sophie Rolland; +6 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background An ongoing need during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the requirement for accurate and efficient point-of-care testing platforms to distinguish infected from non-infected people, and to differentiate SARS-CoV-2 infections from other viruses. Electrochemical platforms can detect the virus via its envelope spike protein by recording changes in voltammetric signals between samples. However, this remains challenging due to the limited sensitivity of these sensing platforms. Methods Here, we report on a nanobody-functionalized electrochemical platform for the rapid detection of whole SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in complex media such as saliva and nasopharyngeal swab samples. The sensor relies on the functionalization of gold electrode surface with highly-oriented Llama nanobodies specific to the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). The device provides results in 10 min of exposure to 200 µL of unprocessed samples with high specificity to SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in human saliva and nasopharyngeal swab samples. Results The developed sensor could discriminate between different human coronavirus strains and other respiratory viruses, with 90% positive and 90% negative percentage agreement on 80 clinical samples, as compared to RT-qPCR. Conclusions We believe this diagnostic concept, also validated for RBD mutants and successfully tested on Delta variant samples, to be a powerful tool to detect patients’ infection status, easily extendable to other viruses and capable of overcoming sensing-related mutation effects.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carrat, Fabrice; Saba Villarroel, Paola Mariela; Lapidus, Nathanaël; Fourié, Toscane; Blanché, Hélène; Dorival, Céline; Nicol, Jérôme; Deleuze, Jean-François; Robineau, Olivier; Touvier, Mathilde; +3 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractAssessment of the intensity, dynamics and determinants of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in the general population is critical to guide vaccination policies. This study characterized the anti-spike IgG titers in 13,971 participants included in a French multicohort population-based serological survey on COVID-19 between April and October 2020 and followed-up with serological testing between May and October 2021. Eight follow-up profiles were defined depending on SARS-CoV-2 infection (0, 1 or 2) and COVID-19 vaccination (0, 1, 2 or 3). The anti-spike titer was lower in adults with no vaccination even in case of infection or reinfection, while it was higher in adults with infection followed by vaccination. The anti-spike titer was negatively correlated with age in vaccinated but uninfected adults, whereas it was positively correlated with age in unvaccinated but infected adults. In adults with 2 vaccine injections and no infection, the vaccine protocol, age, gender, and time since the last vaccine injection were independently associated with the anti-spike titer. The decrease in anti-spike titer was much more rapid in vaccinated than in infected subjects. These results highlight the strong heterogeneity of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in the general population depending on previous infection and vaccination.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roger Frutos; Nouara Yahi; Laurent Gavotte; Jacques Fantini; Christian A. Devaux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amandine Fillol; Esther McSween-Cadieux; Bruno Ventelou; Marie-Pier Larose; Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo Kanguem; Kadidiatou Kadio; Christian Dagenais; Valéry Ridde;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Background: Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods: The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results: The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions: The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices.; Contexte : Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes : L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation : Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tom Van Daele; Kim Mathiasen; Per Carlbring; Sylvie Bernaerts; Agostino Brugnera; Angelo Compare; Aranzazu Duque; Jonas Eimontas; David Gosar; Lise Haddouk; +9 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Lithuania

    Introduction While online consultations have shown promise to be a means for the effective delivery of high-quality mental healthcare and the first implementations of these digital therapeutic contacts go back nearly two decades, uptake has remained limited over the years. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically altered this relative standstill and created a unique turning point, with a massive amount of both professionals and clients having first hands-on experiences with technology in mental healthcare. Objective The current study aimed to document the uptake of online consultations and explore if specific characteristics of mental health professionals across and beyond Europe could predict this. Methods An international survey was designed to assess mental health professionals' (initial) experiences with online consultations at the onset of the pandemic: their willingness to make use of them and their prior and current experiences, alongside several personal characteristics. Logistic mixed-effects models were used to identify predictors of the use of online consultations, personal experience with this modality, and the sense of telepresence. Results A total of 9115 healthcare professionals from 73 countries participated of which about two-thirds used online consultations during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. The current study identifies multiple determinants relating to the use and experience of online consultations, including the professionals' age, experience with the technology before the outbreak, the professional context, and training. Conclusions Despite strong evidence supporting the relevance of training in digital mental health, this is clearly still lacking. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic presented a first, and potentially transformative, experience with online consultations for many healthcare professionals. The insights from this study can help support professionals and, importantly, (mental) healthcare organisations to create optimal circumstances for selective and high-quality continued use of online consultations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Chanel; Alberto Prati; Morgan Raux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; We provide an estimate of the environmental impact of the recruitment system in the economics profession, known as the “international job market for economists”. Each year, most graduating PhDs seeking jobs in academia, government, or companies participate in this job market. The market follows a standardized process, where candidates are pre-screened in a short interview which takes place at an annual meeting in Europe or in the United States. Most interviews are arranged via a non-profit online platform, econjobmarket.org, which kindly agreed to share its anonymized data with us. Using this dataset, we estimate the individual environmental impact of 1057 candidates and one hundred recruitment committees who attended the EEA and AEA meetings in December 2019 and January 2020. We calculate that this pre-screening system generated the equivalent of about 4800 tons of avoidable CO2-eq and a comprehensive economic cost over €4.4 million. We contrast this overall assessment against three counterfactual scenarios: an alternative in-person system, a hybrid system (where videoconference is used for some candidates) and a fully online system (as it happened in 2020–21 due to the COVID-19 pandemic). Overall, the study can offer useful information to shape future recruitment standards in a more sustainable way.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Slim Zidi; Nadia Hamani; Lyes Kermad;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Nowadays, supply chain disruptions caused by COVID-19 pandemic, demand variation, raw material shortage, etc., made the supply chains unable to deal with emerging market problems. Responding to the new requirements has underscored the need to ensure a reconfigurable supply chain in order to survive in this uncertain economic environment. Indeed, the objective of this study is to identify the quantitative factors of each reconfigurability characteristic representing the reconfigurability assessment indicators (modularity, integrability, convertibility, diagnosability, scalability and customization). Based on the literature review, quantitative factors used to assess the degree of reconfigurability in supply chain are determined. These factors allow classifying reconfigurability characteristics according to the degree of their influence on the supply chain structure or supply chain functions. Through this research work, we try to facilitate the assessment of reconfigurability based on its characteristics in order to determine the ability of the supply chain to cope with new emerging disruptions.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder; Al-Gareeb, Ali; Albogami, Sarah; Jean-Marc, Sabatier; Nadwa, Eman Hassan; Hafiz, Amin; A. Negm, Walaa; Kamal, Marwa; Al-Jouboury, Mohammed; Elekhnawy, Engy; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a potential risk factor for the development of COVID-19 and is associated with higher severity and mortality rates. T2DM patients are commonly treated with metformin monotherapy or metformin plus sitagliptin. In the present case-control, single-center cohort study, a total number of 112 T2DM patients suffering from COVID-19 and aged 44–62 years old were compared with 78 T2DM patients without COVID-19 and aged 42–56 years old. Both the patient group and the control group were allocated into four groups. Group A: T2DM patients with COVID-19 on metformin treatments plus standard therapy (n = 60); group B: T2DM patients with COVID-19 on metformin plus sitagliptin plus standard therapy (n = 52); group C: T2DM patients without COVID-19 on metformin treatments (n = 40); and group D: T2DM patients without COVID-19 on metformin plus sitagliptin (n = 38). The investigation duration was 2–3 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, serological and biochemical investigations, pulmonary radiological findings, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 101 T2DM patients with COVID-19 continued the study, 71 (70.29%) with mild-moderate COVID-19 and 30 (29.7%) with severe COVID-19 were compared with 78 T2DM patients as a control. Inflammatory biomarkers (C reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), a lung injury biomarker (lactate dehydrogenase), and a coagulopathy biomarker (D-dimer) were elevated in severe COVID-19 patients compared with mild-moderate COVID-19 (p < 0.05) and T2DM patients (p < 0.05). However, metformin plus sitagliptin was more effective than metformin monotherapy in T2DM patients with COVID-19, as evidenced by the mitigation of oxidative stress, CT scan score, and clinical outcomes. The present study confirmed the protective effects of this combination against the development of COVID-19 severity, as most T2DM COVID-19 patients develop mild-moderate forms. Herein, the combination of metformin and sitagliptin may lead to more beneficial effects than metformin monotherapy.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Lutaud, R.; Gentile, Stéphanie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France