Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
The COVID-19 pandemic is the first serious test of how science can inform decision-making in the face of an immediate global threat, yielding important lessons on how science, society and policy interact. The global societal and economic impact of COVID-19 has shown that we need to assess, plan and prepare for potential future changes. These insights are particularly important for the ocean science community because of the global connectivity of the ocean and its crucial role in the Earth's climate system and in supporting all life on Earth. With climate change already impacting society and ecosystems, implementing mitigation measures to avoid and reduce emissions of greenhouses gases is an immediate priority (IPCC, 2021). Irreversible changes are already underway in the oceans and their impacts over the coming decades will continue to affect human communities, requiring societal responses and adaptation across multiple scales (IPCC, 2019, 2021).
For the first time, we have used phase-contrast X-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopathological examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross-section of 3.5mm were scanned at a laboratory setup as well as at a parallel beam setup at a synchrotron radiation facility the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by high-resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in the form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.
SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging with potential increased transmissibility highlighting the great unmet medical need for new therapies. Niclosamide is a potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent that has advanced in clinical development. We validate the potent antiviral efficacy of niclosamide in a SARS-CoV-2 human airway model. Furthermore, niclosamide remains its potency against the D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants. Our data further support the potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of niclosamide and highlights its great potential as a therapeutic agent for COVID-19.
New lineages of SARS-CoV-2 are of potential concern due to higher transmissibility, risk of severe outcomes, and/or escape from neutralizing antibodies. Lineage B.1.1.7 (the Alpha variant) became dominant in early 2021, but the association between transmissibility and risk factors, such as age of primary case and viral load remains poorly understood. Here, we used comprehensive administrative data from Denmark, comprising the full population (January 11 to February 7, 2021), to estimate household transmissibility. This study included 5,241 households with primary cases; 808 were infected with lineage B.1.1.7 and 4,433 with other lineages. Here, we report an attack rate of 38% in households with a primary case infected with B.1.1.7 and 27% in households with other lineages. Primary cases infected with B.1.1.7 had an increased transmissibility of 1.5–1.7 times that of primary cases infected with other lineages. The increased transmissibility of B.1.1.7 was multiplicative across age and viral load. Establishing the relative transmissibility of emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 is key for pandemic management. Here, the authors use full-population administrative data from Denmark linked to PCR test results and estimate that the Alpha variant was ~60% higher than other strains circulating in early 2021.
Abstract Introduction The diagnosis of COVID-19 is normally based on the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acid sequences. Properties of the host response are not measured but are key in determining outcome. Although metabolic profiles are well suited to capture host state, most metabolomics studies are either underpowered, measure only a restricted subset of metabolites, compare infected individuals against uninfected control cohorts that are not suitably matched, or do not provide a compact predictive model. Objectives Here we provide a well-powered, untargeted metabolomics assessment of 120 COVID-19 patient samples acquired at hospital admission. The study aims to predict the patient’s infection severity (i.e., mild or severe) and potential outcome (i.e., discharged or deceased). Methods High resolution untargeted UHPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on patient serum using both positive and negative ionization modes. A subset of 20 intermediary metabolites predictive of severity or outcome were selected based on univariate statistical significance and a multiple predictor Bayesian logistic regression model was created. Results The predictors were selected for their relevant biological function and include deoxycytidine and ureidopropionate (indirectly reflecting viral load), kynurenine (reflecting host inflammatory response), and multiple short chain acylcarnitines (energy metabolism) among others. Currently, this approach predicts outcome and severity with a Monte Carlo cross validated area under the ROC curve of 0.792 (SD 0.09) and 0.793 (SD 0.08), respectively. A blind validation study on an additional 90 patients predicted outcome and severity at ROC AUC of 0.83 (CI 0.74–0.91) and 0.76 (CI 0.67–0.86). Conclusion Prognostic tests based on the markers discussed in this paper could allow improvement in the planning of COVID-19 patient treatment.
Driven by an increasing number of connected medical devices, Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), as an application of Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare, is developed to help collect, analyze, and transmit medical data. During the outbreak of a pandemic like COVID-19, IoMT can be useful to monitor the status of patients and detect main symptoms remotely, by using various smart sensors. However, due to the lack of emotional care in the current IoMT, it is still a challenge to reach an efficient medical process. Especially under COVID-19, there is a need to monitor emotional status among particular people like the elderly. In this work, we propose an emotion-aware healthcare monitoring system in IoMT, based on brainwaves. With the fast development of electroencephalography (EEG) sensors in current headsets and some devices, brainwave-based emotion detection becomes feasible. The IoMT devices are used to capture the brainwaves of a patient in a scenario of smart home. Also, our system involves the analysis of touch behavior as the second layer to enhance the brainwave-based emotion recognition. In the user study with 60 participants, the results indicate the viability and effectiveness of our approach in detecting emotions like comfortable and uncomfortable, which can complement existing emotion-aware healthcare applications and mechanisms.
An important component of severe COVID-19 disease is virus-induced endothelilitis. This leads to disruption of normal endothelial function, initiating a state of failing normal clotting physiology. Massively increased levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) lead to overwhelming platelet activation, as well as activation of the enzymatic (intrinsic) clotting pathway. In addition, there is an impaired fibrinolysis, caused by, amongst others, increased levels of alpha-(2) antiplasmin. The end result is hypercoagulation (proven by thromboelastography® (TEG®)) and reduced fibrinolysis, inevitably leading to a difficult-to-overcome hypercoagulated physiological state. Platelets in circulation also plays a significant role in clot formation, but they themselves may also drive hypercoagulation when they are overactivated due to the interactions of their receptors with the endothelium, immune cells or circulating inflammatory molecules. From the literature it is clear that the role of platelets in severely ill COVID-19 patients has been markedly underestimated or even ignored. We here highlight the value of early management of severe COVID-19 coagulopathy as guided by TEG®, microclot and platelet mapping. We also argue that the failure of clinical trials, where the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic clexane (low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)) were not always successful, which may be because the significant role of platelet activation was not taken into account during the planning of the trial. We conclude that, because of the overwhelming alteration of clotting, the outcome of any trial evaluating an any single anticoagulant, including thrombolytic, would be negative. Here we suggest the use of the degree of platelet dysfunction and presence of microclots in circulation, together with TEG®, might be used as a guideline for disease severity. A multi-pronged approach, guided by TEG® and platelet mapping, would be required to maintain normal clotting physiology in severe COVID-19 disease.
Although indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and human health have been on the agenda of the green building industry, a new emphasis is being placed on building features that explicitly promote the experience of occupants. However, evidence of the performance of green-certified buildings from the occupant perspective remains inconsistent, with numerous questions on how to effectively design, assess and promote ‘healthy buildings’. Focusing on the key IEQ categories of indoor air quality, thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics, this paper synthesises emerging knowledge related to IEQ and health; identifies research and practical challenges that may impede the performance of green-rated buildings; sets the foundations for researchers and green rating system developers to capture immediate and long-term opportunities; and proposes a new framework for green-certified buildings. The envisioned future of green buildings will need to be based on a thorough knowledge of the building and its users, their inter- and intra-individual variability, their spatiotemporal localisation, their activities, their history of exposures, together with a capacity of anticipation of the likelihood of future events and preparedness for them. A balanced, integrated, consideration of these factors can provide the basis for more effective green building certification systems. 'Practice relevance' The Covid-19 pandemic has focused attention on the importance of IEQ and highlighted the limitations of prevailing practice for promoting human experience, health and wellbeing. Most critically, the good intentions of project planning are often not reflected in real-world conditions, and establishedbest practiceshave not kept pace with advances in research. This paper provides a critical synthesis of the literature on the effectiveness of green building ratings systems for human experience. It identifies limitations and practical opportunities for improvement in the design and application of rating tools. These observations present specific, actionable, opportunities to improve the design and operation of green building rating systems. Rating system developers and practitioners can use this information to better align design intentions with outcomes. Explicit consideration is needed for differences in individual preferences, spatial and temporal variabilities of IEQ factors, occupant exposure history, and other factors impacting IEQ.
This paper aims to understand the relationship between area level deprivation and monthly COVID-19 cases in England in response to government policy throughout 2020. The response variable is monthly reported COVID-19 cases at the Middle Super Output Area (MSOA) level by Public Health England, with Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), ethnicity (percentage of the population across 5 ethnicity categories) and the percentage of the population older than 70 years old and time as predictors. A GEE population-averaged panel-data model was employed to model trends in monthly COVID-19 cases with the population of each MSOA included as the exposure variable. Area level deprivation is significantly associated with COVID-19 cases from March 2020; however, this relationship is reversed in December 2020. Follow up analysis found that this reversal was maintained when controlling for the novel COVID-19 variant outbreak in the South East of England. This analysis indicates that changes in the role of deprivation and monthly reported COVID-19 over time cases may be linked to two government policies: (1) the premature easing of national restrictions in July 2020 when cases were still high in the most deprived areas in England and (2) the introduction of a regional tiered system in October predominantly in the North of England. The analysis adds to the evidence showing that deprivation is a key driver of COVID-19 outcomes and highlights the unintended negative impact of government policy.
Pablo Pita; Pablo Pita; Gillian B. Ainsworth; Gillian B. Ainsworth; Bernardino Alba; Antônio B. Anderson; Manel Antelo; Manel Antelo; Josep Alós; Iñaki Artetxe; +58 more
Pablo Pita; Pablo Pita; Gillian B. Ainsworth; Gillian B. Ainsworth; Bernardino Alba; Antônio B. Anderson; Manel Antelo; Manel Antelo; Josep Alós; Iñaki Artetxe; Jérôme Baudrier; José J. Castro; Belén Chicharro; Karim Erzini; Keno Ferter; Mafalda Freitas; Mafalda Freitas; Laura García-de-la-Fuente; José A. García-Charton; María Giménez-Casalduero; Antoni M. Grau; Hugo Diogo; Hugo Diogo; Ana Gordoa; Filipe Henriques; Filipe Henriques; Filipe Henriques; Kieran Hyder; Kieran Hyder; David Jiménez-Alvarado; Paraskevi K. Karachle; Josep Lloret; Martin Laporta; Martin Laporta; Adam M. Lejk; Arnau L. Dedeu; Pablo Martín-Sosa; Lllibori Martínez; Antoni M. Mira; Beatriz Morales-Nin; Estanis Mugerza; Hans J. Olesen; Anastasios Papadopoulos; João Pontes; José J. Pascual-Fernández; Ariadna Purroy; Milena Ramires; Mafalda Rangel; José Amorim Reis-Filho; José Amorim Reis-Filho; Jose L. Sánchez-Lizaso; Virginia Sandoval; Valerio Sbragaglia; Luis Silva; Christian Skov; Iván Sola; Iván Sola; Harry V. Strehlow; María A. Torres; Didzis Ustups; Tessa van der Hammen; Pedro Veiga; Leonardo A. Venerus; Thomas Verleye; Sebastián Villasante; Sebastián Villasante; Marc Simon Weltersbach; Lucía Zarauz;
Countries: Netherlands, Spain, France, Denmark, Spain, Spain, Spain, Netherlands, Spain, France ...
This work was funded by the Xunta de Galicia (RECREGES II project under Grant ED481B2018/017, and Grupo de Referencia Competitiva GI-2060 AEMI, under Grant ED431C2019/11). PP acknowledges economic support of the project Grupo de Trabajo Sobre Pesca Marítima Recreativa en España, funded by the Fundación Biodiversidad of the Spanish Ministerio Para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico, co-funded by the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund. SV acknowledges the financial support of the EQUALSEA project ERC Consolidator Grant Agreement No. 101002784 funded by the European Research Council, and the CYTED program for the ECOMAR Network. AML, CS, and MW have been co-funded by the European Commission’s Data Collection Framework (DCF). CS acknowledge founding from the Danish Rod and Net Fish License funds (Project No. 39122). The CCMAR affiliated authors acknowledge Portuguese national funds from FCT-Foundation for Science and Technology through project UIDB/04326/2020. MaR acknowledges FCT funding through a post-doctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/116307/2016). AA acknowledges funding of FAPES, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Espírito Santo, Brazil - PROFIX program 10/2018 - T.O.: 348/2018 for AA postdoctoral scholarship. JR-F acknowledges funding of Participatory Fishing Monitoring accomplished by the ICHTUS Soluções em Meio Ambiente Ltda. KF was funded by the tourist fishing project (“Kartlegging av Turistfiske”), which is part of the Coastal Zone Ecosystem Program at the Institute of Marine Research of Norway. JG-C and VS were funded in part by a contract with the Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Service - Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia - Spain (with funds from the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund) and the project “MaReFish” financed by the MedPAN network under its “Small Projects – 2018” call. JA was supported by a Ramon y Cajal Grant (Grant No. RYC2018-024488-I) and received funding from the CLOCKS (Grant No. PID2019-104940GAI00) and JSATS (Grant No. PIE202030E002) projects funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN). VSB is supported by a “Juan de la Cierva Incorporación” research fellowship (IJC2018-035389-I) granted by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN). HS acknowledges financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany in the framework of marEEshift (Project No. 01LC 1826B). This work is the result of an international research effort to determine the main impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on marine recreational fishing. Changes were assessed on (1) access to fishing, derived from lockdowns and other mobility restrictions; (2) ecosystems, because of alterations in fishing intensity and human presence; (3) the blue economy, derived from alterations in the investments and expenses of the fishers; and (4) society, in relation to variations in fishers’ health and well-being. For this, a consultation with experts from 16 countries was carried out, as well as an international online survey aimed at recreational fishers, that included specific questions designed to capture fishers’ heterogeneity in relation to behavior, skills and know-how, and vital involvement. Fishers’ participation in the online survey (5,998 recreational fishers in 15 countries) was promoted through a marketing campaign. The sensitivity of the fishers’ clustering procedure, based on the captured heterogeneity, was evaluated by SIMPER analysis and by generalized linear models. Results from the expert consultation highlighted a worldwide reduction in marine recreational fishing activity. Lower human-driven pressures are expected to generate some benefits for marine ecosystems. However, experts also identified high negative impacts on the blue economy, as well as on fisher health and well-being because of the loss of recreational fishing opportunities. Most (98%) of the fishers who participated in the online survey were identified as advanced, showing a much higher degree of commitment to recreational fishing than basic fishers (2%). Advanced fishers were, in general, more pessimistic about the impacts of COVID19, reporting higher reductions in physical activity and fish consumption, as well as poorer quality of night rest, foul mood, and raised more concerns about their health status. Controlled and safe access to marine recreational fisheries during pandemics would provide benefits to the health and well-being of people and reduce negative socioeconomic impacts, especially for vulnerable social groups. Este artículo contiene 24 páginas, 5 figuras, 3 tablas. Peer reviewed