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36 Research products, page 1 of 4

  • COVID-19
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qvortrup, Ane; Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark; Christensen, Vibeke; Lomholt, Rune; Nielsen, Anni; Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen; Clark, Aske;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Institut for Kulturvidenskaber
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coelho, Nelson F.;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: Denmark

    The content of Resolution MSC.473(ES.2) can be summarized in five main points and one invitation to IMO Member States.The first point pertains to the implementation of the Framework of Protocols. The second point pertains to the designation of seafarers as ‘key workers’ in order to facilitate safe and unhindered movement for embarking or disembarking a vessel. The third point pertains to the consideration of temporary migration measures to ease mobility of seafarers, eg waivers or relaxations of visa or documentary requirements. The fourth point is on the use of prevention measures such as testing crews before embarkation; this requires active conduct by port states, namely providing access to personal protective equipment and testing facilities. The fifth point is on providing seafarers with immediate access to medical care and facilities, as well as with evacuation when the assistance required cannot be provided on board or at port; this aims to prevent humanitarian situations such as casualties onboard vessels due to lack of access to intensive care units. Furthermore, the Resolution invites Member States to designate a National Focal Point on Crew Change and Repatriation of Seafarers (‘National Focal Point’).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensby, Anne; Mogensen, Oliver Bendix Gammeljord; Svejvig, Per;
    Publisher: Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark

    The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions. The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frangoudes, Katia; Toonen, Hilde; Macias, Jordi Vegas; Ferguson, Laura; Flannery, Wesley; Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Sousa, Lisa; Pita, Cristina; da Silva, Ana Margarida Ferreira; Mylona, Dimitra; +2 more
    Publisher: PERICLES
    Country: Denmark

    This deliverable, D4.4, describes the "participatory framework for sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes" of the PERICLES project. It is the final deliverable for WP4, based on the four tasks carried out in this and other work packages. It brings together a synthesis of information already communicated in other reports (e.g. D4.1; D4.2; D4.3), and examples from the PERICLES case regions. In doing so, this deliverable presents the PERICLES participatory framework as practice-informed approach to understand, assess and enact sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes.In the PERICLES participatory risk assessment framework, defining risks and threats is seen as an important starting point because this enables clearer communication and therefore to create a common understanding among those stakeholders who are affected by threats, and those who are affecting andgoverning risks to coastal and maritime cultural heritage. In the PERICLES project, a distinction is made between natural/environmental and human-induced threats as captured in the first phase of the framework. At the same time, it is highlighted that such distinction can be artificial and should beconsidered with care, as represented in the two-layered design of the framework. Every step goes with questions for reflection for those using the framework, and the iterative loops contained within it. Governance, is seen as a process of steering at a strategic level in which a variety of actors can beinvolved yet not affected, can be affected yet marginalized or excluded, or anything in between. Risk management takes place at the more operational level but the power dynamics of a governance process are still important. As such the second phase of the risk assessment framework seeks to suggest participatory ways to assess, decide and evaluate risks.PERICLES partners had the ambition to test the framework in demo-specific risk assessment processes in the PERICLES case regions. This testing was planned at the case-region level between January 2020 and January 2021. However, due to pandemic related restriction (ban of meetings and curfews) it proved to be impossible to realise the testing and implementing of the framework in the way envisioned. As an alternative approach, PERICLES partners have looked at their demo work through the lens of the assessment framework and discussed this in four joint sessions. This led to enhanced, practice-informed insights on how the different steps worked out in several specific case regions. Furthermore, thepartners jointly reflected on the impact of COVID-19 on their own participatory strategies. It has been clear that the pandemic has hampered participation in demo activities and has also brought some to a stand-still. Mitigating measures were mainly through online activities, which allowed for opening up to new audiences but also brought forward forms of exclusion because of a digital divide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shumake-Guillemot, Joy; Amir, Sulfikar; Anwar, Nausheen; Arrighi, Julie; Böse-O’Reilly, Stephan; Brearley, Matt; Cross, Jamie; Daanen , Hein; de’Donato, Francesca; Eggen, Bernd; +27 more
    Publisher: Global Heat Health Information Network
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom
  • Publication . Book . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godiksen, Jane Aanestad; Allegaert, Wim; Basilone, Gualtiero; Beier, Ulrika; Bekaert, Karen; Berg, Florian; Blass, Martina; Canha, Ângela; Carbonara, Pierluigi; Davies, Julie Coad; +29 more
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
    Countries: Denmark, France

    The main objective of the Working Group on Biological Parameters (WGBIOP) is to review the status, issues, developments, and quality assurance of biological parameters for use in assessments and management that are in line with the requirements of end-users. In this final year of the three-year term, WGBIOP operated under challenging circumstances due to COVID-19 measures. The initial action plan was replaced by a more flexible one, where online plenary and subgroup meetings were spread over the year with intersessional work to finalize the proposed deliverables.WGBIOP continued the review of past exchanges and workshops under the remit of the working group. Since 2019, these calibrations on age, maturity, and larvae identification have been carried out in SmartDots, an online platform for sharing images and facilitating the reading of otoliths, staging of gonads, and identification of early life stages. Developments are underway to include an improved calculation of modal age and error matrices in the SmartDots standard report. WGBIOP investigated ways to incorporate error matrices into assessments and studied the effect of this inclusion together with stock assessors.Requests for new exchanges and workshops were reviewed, with a focus on stocks to be benchmarked in the coming years. Issue lists were scrutinized, problems identified, and information provided to stock coordinators via regular channels and through the Stock Identification Database (SID). Despite close cooperation with stock assessors and continued efforts, it has not been possible to further streamline the WGBIOP workflow with the benchmark process. This will be addressed with the Advisory Committee. The need for validation studies was stressed by the repeated low levels of agreement between readers of some stocks and recurring issues and recommendations to WGBIOP. Lack of resources is the main obstacle. As a first step for measures to prioritize validation studies, WGBIOP identified precision, trueness, and feasibility of validation methods (as well as the urgency for the assessment). WGBIOP continued investigations into new life-history parameters for integrated assessment and advice in cooperation with end-users (Working Group on Integrative, Physical biological and Ecosystem Modelling-WGIPEM and Regional Coordination Groups-RCGs). This included a standardization and quality assurance action plan for stomach sampling. Efforts have also been taken to streamline data and workflows across databases and groups. A step has been taken in the standardization of quality assurance procedures at the regional level. Institute-level overviews of methods and quality assurance protocols used for ageing and maturity are now available. Also, a new method for quality grading was developed, tested, and implemented in SmartDots.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Aristegui-Ezquibela, Mikel; Burgos, Candelaria; Doyle, Jennifer; Fifas, Spyros; Firmin, Chris; Jónasson, Jónas; Jonsson, Patrik; Lundy, Mathieu; Martinelli, Michela; +10 more
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
    Country: Denmark

    The Working Group on Nephrops Surveys (WGNEPS) is the international coordination group for Nephrops underwater television and trawl surveys within ICES. This report summarizes the national contributions on the results of the surveys conducted in 2021 together with time series covering all survey years, problems encountered, data quality checks and technological improvements as well as the planning for survey activities for 2022. In total, 19 surveys covering 25 functional units (FU’s) in the ICES area and 1 geographical subarea (GSA) in the Adriatic Sea were discussed and further improvements in respect to survey design and data analysis standardization and the use of recent technologies were reviewed. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic there were minimal disruptions to survey operations where one survey was not completed (GSA 17). A trial trawl Nephrops survey offshore Portugal was carried out on the new research vessel.Preliminary work on how to measure burrow system size was presented using high definition (HD) and standard definition (SD) image data. Further work on comparison of SD and HD indicates the change to HD system mounted with a different camera angle was not significantly different for two survey areas (FU 16 and FU 20-21).Automatic burrow detection based on deep learning methods continues to show promising results where datasets from multiple institutes were used. The working group members have agreed to draft a roadmap for automatic system technology requirements with links to the Working Group on Machine Learning in Marine Science (WGMLEARN) and current researchers.The working group is progressing plans for an international Nephrops Underwater television (UWTW) database to be established at the ICES Data Centre. End-users of UWTV datasets for epifauna reporting presented their work and showed the potential for adding value to the survey data, where many of the institutes are involved in providing data for similar research purposes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Neufeldt, Henry; Dale, Thomas William;
    Publisher: UNEP DTU Partnership
    Country: Denmark

    Context and framing of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report 2021The sixth edition of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report (AGR2021) has been produced in the second year of the global COVID-19 pandemic. While encouraging trends in tackling the pandemic are emerging, including the unprecedented development and roll-out of highly effective vaccines in many industrialized countries, the COVID-19 crisis continues to create severe human health challenges, economic turmoil and recurring restrictions on daily life in most parts of the world. The pandemic’s impact on global climate change adaptation processes is increasingly visible through direct effects on adaptation planning and constraints on available finance. Climate impacts also tend to be more severe in vulnerable developing economies, many of which are also among the worst affected by COVID-19. At the same time, rescue andrecovery initiatives designed to kick start economies in the wake of the pandemic offer a unique opportunity to secure a green recovery by mainstreaming adaptation into public financing streams worth trillions of dollars, dwarfing the sums otherwise dedicated to adaptation. Furthermore, climate change and the pandemic share some striking similarities: like the pandemic, the climate change crisis is a systemic problem that requires coordinated global, national and local responses. Many of the lessons learned from handling the pandemic have the potential to serve as examples of how to improve climate adaptation planningand financing.Meanwhile, climate change continues its unrelenting path towards a warmer future. As the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), released in August 2021, starkly documents, some impacts are now irreversible. Many parts of the world have experienced unprecedented climate impacts this year, such as the heat dome and rampant wildfires in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America and Canada; severe flooding in Western Europe, eastern parts of the United States of America, the province of Henan in China, and the state of Maharashtra in India; and imminent hunger after continued droughts in Madagascar. The assessment report also documents how, even under the most optimistic emissions mitigation scenarios where net-zero is reached by around 2050, global warming will continue in the short to medium term, potentially levelling off at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. All this makes adaptation an increasingly urgent global imperative.At the political level, international climate efforts under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) continue, despite the postponement of the twenty-sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 26), which was put back from November 2020 to November 2021. COP 26 will have a strong focus on adaptation issues and will see consultations and work proceed towards the first Global Stocktake in 2023, including the submission of new and updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).AGR2021 provides an update on current actions and the emerging results of regional-level to national-level adaptation planning, finance and implementation worldwide (figure ES.1). All three elements are critical for tracking and assessing progress towards the global goal on adaptation. AGR2021 also expands and strengthens the assessment of future adaptation outcomes, in particular through the inclusion of qualitativeexpert judgements. In view of the ongoing pandemic, the report provides an in-depth assessment of the emerging consequences of COVID-19 in relation to adaptation planning and finance and highlights the lessons and opportunities for future adaptation efforts through economic growth and climate resilience as part of a green recovery.Status and progress of global adaptation planning, finance and implementationPLANNINGDespite the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change adaptation is becoming increasingly embedded in policy and planning across the world. National-level adaptation planning processes remain a critical element in the global response to the impacts of climate change, as underscored by the Paris Agreement. While early evidence suggests that some National Adaptation Plan (NAP) development processes have been delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among least developed countries, progress is still being made on national adaptation planning agendas. Around 79 per cent of all countries have now adopted at least onenational-level adaptation planning instrument (for example, a plan, strategy, policy or law). This is an increase of 7 per cent since 2020 (figure ES.1). Furthermore, 9 per cent of countries that do not currently have such an instrument in place are in the process of developing one (no change since 2020). At least 65 per cent of countries have one or more sectoral plans in place and at least 26 per cent have one or moresubnational planning instruments. 

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanev, Georgi Plamenov;
    Publisher: Technical University of Denmark
    Country: Denmark

    Digital microuidic biochips have emerged as a technology for miniaturizing and automating the traditional biochemical laboratory processes. The technology allows for direct programmatic control of droplets without the need for pumps, valves, or dened channels, which makes the digital microuidic biochips highly programmable and recongurable devices. Although the technology has already been in the research spotlight for over two decades, the digital microuidic biochips face signicant diculties in achieving wide-adoption and living up to the expectations for extensive miniaturization and automation of biomedical applications. Among the most signicant challenges is that digital microuidics is an interdisciplinary eld where the research is often focused on technology and component level rather than on a complete future proof system. Taking the digital microuidics past the step of technology demonstrators required bridging the gap between digital biochips presented in the context of application-specic short term research goals and a programmable applicationagnostic digital microuidics system. Hence, inspired by the heavily standardized microelectronics industry and modern computer architectures, this dissertation embarked on the journey to eciently connect the uidic and control domains into a vision for a modular and recongurable cyber-uidic architecture. The proposed architecture is based on the analysis of an extensive survey of existing technologies and systems, which conrmed that achieving the envisioned cyber-uidic architecture requires the design, fabrication, and operational aspects to be considered in symbiosis. The proposed cyber-uidic architecture is split into three loosely coupled parts; uidic, instrumentation, and virtual, where each part is deliberately designed in the context of its intrinsic relationships with the rest of the system. The cyber-uidic architecture was developed into a modular platform-based design, which allowed addressing the spectrum of accompanying challenges on a conceptual and technological level. The engineering research of the uidic system led to the development of a digital biochip with a large array of individually addressable electrodes, a novel design of recongurable embedded heaters, and an innovative low-cost coating method. This dissertation also discusses the design and implementation of the modular instrumentation system that embraces recongurability to provide an evolvable and scalable model for digital biochip instrumentation. We also conceptualized a software stack for programmable microuidics, including a uidic instruction set architecture, text and graphicalbased programming methods, and an execution model. The capabilities of the proposed cyber-uidic architecture and the constructed platform are demonstrated with several real-life protocols, namely performing a gene amplication by a polymerase chain reaction and magnetic beads-based enzymatic immunoassays targeting the detection of MRSA and SARS-CoV-2 spiked protein.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wunderlich, Marie Freia; Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke;
    Publisher: Department of Management, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
36 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qvortrup, Ane; Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark; Christensen, Vibeke; Lomholt, Rune; Nielsen, Anni; Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen; Clark, Aske;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Institut for Kulturvidenskaber
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coelho, Nelson F.;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: Denmark

    The content of Resolution MSC.473(ES.2) can be summarized in five main points and one invitation to IMO Member States.The first point pertains to the implementation of the Framework of Protocols. The second point pertains to the designation of seafarers as ‘key workers’ in order to facilitate safe and unhindered movement for embarking or disembarking a vessel. The third point pertains to the consideration of temporary migration measures to ease mobility of seafarers, eg waivers or relaxations of visa or documentary requirements. The fourth point is on the use of prevention measures such as testing crews before embarkation; this requires active conduct by port states, namely providing access to personal protective equipment and testing facilities. The fifth point is on providing seafarers with immediate access to medical care and facilities, as well as with evacuation when the assistance required cannot be provided on board or at port; this aims to prevent humanitarian situations such as casualties onboard vessels due to lack of access to intensive care units. Furthermore, the Resolution invites Member States to designate a National Focal Point on Crew Change and Repatriation of Seafarers (‘National Focal Point’).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensby, Anne; Mogensen, Oliver Bendix Gammeljord; Svejvig, Per;
    Publisher: Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark

    The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions. The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frangoudes, Katia; Toonen, Hilde; Macias, Jordi Vegas; Ferguson, Laura; Flannery, Wesley; Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Sousa, Lisa; Pita, Cristina; da Silva, Ana Margarida Ferreira; Mylona, Dimitra; +2 more
    Publisher: PERICLES
    Country: Denmark

    This deliverable, D4.4, describes the "participatory framework for sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes" of the PERICLES project. It is the final deliverable for WP4, based on the four tasks carried out in this and other work packages. It brings together a synthesis of information already communicated in other reports (e.g. D4.1; D4.2; D4.3), and examples from the PERICLES case regions. In doing so, this deliverable presents the PERICLES participatory framework as practice-informed approach to understand, assess and enact sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes.In the PERICLES participatory risk assessment framework, defining risks and threats is seen as an important starting point because this enables clearer communication and therefore to create a common understanding among those stakeholders who are affected by threats, and those who are affecting andgoverning risks to coastal and maritime cultural heritage. In the PERICLES project, a distinction is made between natural/environmental and human-induced threats as captured in the first phase of the framework. At the same time, it is highlighted that such distinction can be artificial and should beconsidered with care, as represented in the two-layered design of the framework. Every step goes with questions for reflection for those using the framework, and the iterative loops contained within it. Governance, is seen as a process of steering at a strategic level in which a variety of actors can beinvolved yet not affected, can be affected yet marginalized or excluded, or anything in between. Risk management takes place at the more operational level but the power dynamics of a governance process are still important. As such the second phase of the risk assessment framework seeks to suggest participatory ways to assess, decide and evaluate risks.PERICLES partners had the ambition to test the framework in demo-specific risk assessment processes in the PERICLES case regions. This testing was planned at the case-region level between January 2020 and January 2021. However, due to pandemic related restriction (ban of meetings and curfews) it proved to be impossible to realise the testing and implementing of the framework in the way envisioned. As an alternative approach, PERICLES partners have looked at their demo work through the lens of the assessment framework and discussed this in four joint sessions. This led to enhanced, practice-informed insights on how the different steps worked out in several specific case regions. Furthermore, thepartners jointly reflected on the impact of COVID-19 on their own participatory strategies. It has been clear that the pandemic has hampered participation in demo activities and has also brought some to a stand-still. Mitigating measures were mainly through online activities, which allowed for opening up to new audiences but also brought forward forms of exclusion because of a digital divide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shumake-Guillemot, Joy; Amir, Sulfikar; Anwar, Nausheen; Arrighi, Julie; Böse-O’Reilly, Stephan; Brearley, Matt; Cross, Jamie; Daanen , Hein; de’Donato, Francesca; Eggen, Bernd; +27 more
    Publisher: Global Heat Health Information Network
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom
  • Publication . Book . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godiksen, Jane Aanestad; Allegaert, Wim; Basilone, Gualtiero; Beier, Ulrika; Bekaert, Karen; Berg, Florian; Blass, Martina; Canha, Ângela; Carbonara, Pierluigi; Davies, Julie Coad; +29 more
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
    Countries: Denmark, France

    The main objective of the Working Group on Biological Parameters (WGBIOP) is to review the status, issues, developments, and quality assurance of biological parameters for use in assessments and management that are in line with the requirements of end-users. In this final year of the three-year term, WGBIOP operated under challenging circumstances due to COVID-19 measures. The initial action plan was replaced by a more flexible one, where online plenary and subgroup meetings were spread over the year with intersessional work to finalize the proposed deliverables.WGBIOP continued the review of past exchanges and workshops under the remit of the working group. Since 2019, these calibrations on age, maturity, and larvae identification have been carried out in SmartDots, an online platform for sharing images and facilitating the reading of otoliths, staging of gonads, and identification of early life stages. Developments are underway to include an improved calculation of modal age and error matrices in the SmartDots standard report. WGBIOP investigated ways to incorporate error matrices into assessments and studied the effect of this inclusion together with stock assessors.Requests for new exchanges and workshops were reviewed, with a focus on stocks to be benchmarked in the coming years. Issue lists were scrutinized, problems identified, and information provided to stock coordinators via regular channels and through the Stock Identification Database (SID). Despite close cooperation with stock assessors and continued efforts, it has not been possible to further streamline the WGBIOP workflow with the benchmark process. This will be addressed with the Advisory Committee. The need for validation studies was stressed by the repeated low levels of agreement between readers of some stocks and recurring issues and recommendations to WGBIOP. Lack of resources is the main obstacle. As a first step for measures to prioritize validation studies, WGBIOP identified precision, trueness, and feasibility of validation methods (as well as the urgency for the assessment). WGBIOP continued investigations into new life-history parameters for integrated assessment and advice in cooperation with end-users (Working Group on Integrative, Physical biological and Ecosystem Modelling-WGIPEM and Regional Coordination Groups-RCGs). This included a standardization and quality assurance action plan for stomach sampling. Efforts have also been taken to streamline data and workflows across databases and groups. A step has been taken in the standardization of quality assurance procedures at the regional level. Institute-level overviews of methods and quality assurance protocols used for ageing and maturity are now available. Also, a new method for quality grading was developed, tested, and implemented in SmartDots.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Aristegui-Ezquibela, Mikel; Burgos, Candelaria; Doyle, Jennifer; Fifas, Spyros; Firmin, Chris; Jónasson, Jónas; Jonsson, Patrik; Lundy, Mathieu; Martinelli, Michela; +10 more
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
    Country: Denmark

    The Working Group on Nephrops Surveys (WGNEPS) is the international coordination group for Nephrops underwater television and trawl surveys within ICES. This report summarizes the national contributions on the results of the surveys conducted in 2021 together with time series covering all survey years, problems encountered, data quality checks and technological improvements as well as the planning for survey activities for 2022. In total, 19 surveys covering 25 functional units (FU’s) in the ICES area and 1 geographical subarea (GSA) in the Adriatic Sea were discussed and further improvements in respect to survey design and data analysis standardization and the use of recent technologies were reviewed. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic there were minimal disruptions to survey operations where one survey was not completed (GSA 17). A trial trawl Nephrops survey offshore Portugal was carried out on the new research vessel.Preliminary work on how to measure burrow system size was presented using high definition (HD) and standard definition (SD) image data. Further work on comparison of SD and HD indicates the change to HD system mounted with a different camera angle was not significantly different for two survey areas (FU 16 and FU 20-21).Automatic burrow detection based on deep learning methods continues to show promising results where datasets from multiple institutes were used. The working group members have agreed to draft a roadmap for automatic system technology requirements with links to the Working Group on Machine Learning in Marine Science (WGMLEARN) and current researchers.The working group is progressing plans for an international Nephrops Underwater television (UWTW) database to be established at the ICES Data Centre. End-users of UWTV datasets for epifauna reporting presented their work and showed the potential for adding value to the survey data, where many of the institutes are involved in providing data for similar research purposes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Neufeldt, Henry; Dale, Thomas William;
    Publisher: UNEP DTU Partnership
    Country: Denmark

    Context and framing of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report 2021The sixth edition of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report (AGR2021) has been produced in the second year of the global COVID-19 pandemic. While encouraging trends in tackling the pandemic are emerging, including the unprecedented development and roll-out of highly effective vaccines in many industrialized countries, the COVID-19 crisis continues to create severe human health challenges, economic turmoil and recurring restrictions on daily life in most parts of the world. The pandemic’s impact on global climate change adaptation processes is increasingly visible through direct effects on adaptation planning and constraints on available finance. Climate impacts also tend to be more severe in vulnerable developing economies, many of which are also among the worst affected by COVID-19. At the same time, rescue andrecovery initiatives designed to kick start economies in the wake of the pandemic offer a unique opportunity to secure a green recovery by mainstreaming adaptation into public financing streams worth trillions of dollars, dwarfing the sums otherwise dedicated to adaptation. Furthermore, climate change and the pandemic share some striking similarities: like the pandemic, the climate change crisis is a systemic problem that requires coordinated global, national and local responses. Many of the lessons learned from handling the pandemic have the potential to serve as examples of how to improve climate adaptation planningand financing.Meanwhile, climate change continues its unrelenting path towards a warmer future. As the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), released in August 2021, starkly documents, some impacts are now irreversible. Many parts of the world have experienced unprecedented climate impacts this year, such as the heat dome and rampant wildfires in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America and Canada; severe flooding in Western Europe, eastern parts of the United States of America, the province of Henan in China, and the state of Maharashtra in India; and imminent hunger after continued droughts in Madagascar. The assessment report also documents how, even under the most optimistic emissions mitigation scenarios where net-zero is reached by around 2050, global warming will continue in the short to medium term, potentially levelling off at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. All this makes adaptation an increasingly urgent global imperative.At the political level, international climate efforts under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) continue, despite the postponement of the twenty-sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 26), which was put back from November 2020 to November 2021. COP 26 will have a strong focus on adaptation issues and will see consultations and work proceed towards the first Global Stocktake in 2023, including the submission of new and updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).AGR2021 provides an update on current actions and the emerging results of regional-level to national-level adaptation planning, finance and implementation worldwide (figure ES.1). All three elements are critical for tracking and assessing progress towards the global goal on adaptation. AGR2021 also expands and strengthens the assessment of future adaptation outcomes, in particular through the inclusion of qualitativeexpert judgements. In view of the ongoing pandemic, the report provides an in-depth assessment of the emerging consequences of COVID-19 in relation to adaptation planning and finance and highlights the lessons and opportunities for future adaptation efforts through economic growth and climate resilience as part of a green recovery.Status and progress of global adaptation planning, finance and implementationPLANNINGDespite the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change adaptation is becoming increasingly embedded in policy and planning across the world. National-level adaptation planning processes remain a critical element in the global response to the impacts of climate change, as underscored by the Paris Agreement. While early evidence suggests that some National Adaptation Plan (NAP) development processes have been delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among least developed countries, progress is still being made on national adaptation planning agendas. Around 79 per cent of all countries have now adopted at least onenational-level adaptation planning instrument (for example, a plan, strategy, policy or law). This is an increase of 7 per cent since 2020 (figure ES.1). Furthermore, 9 per cent of countries that do not currently have such an instrument in place are in the process of developing one (no change since 2020). At least 65 per cent of countries have one or more sectoral plans in place and at least 26 per cent have one or moresubnational planning instruments. 

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanev, Georgi Plamenov;
    Publisher: Technical University of Denmark
    Country: Denmark

    Digital microuidic biochips have emerged as a technology for miniaturizing and automating the traditional biochemical laboratory processes. The technology allows for direct programmatic control of droplets without the need for pumps, valves, or dened channels, which makes the digital microuidic biochips highly programmable and recongurable devices. Although the technology has already been in the research spotlight for over two decades, the digital microuidic biochips face signicant diculties in achieving wide-adoption and living up to the expectations for extensive miniaturization and automation of biomedical applications. Among the most signicant challenges is that digital microuidics is an interdisciplinary eld where the research is often focused on technology and component level rather than on a complete future proof system. Taking the digital microuidics past the step of technology demonstrators required bridging the gap between digital biochips presented in the context of application-specic short term research goals and a programmable applicationagnostic digital microuidics system. Hence, inspired by the heavily standardized microelectronics industry and modern computer architectures, this dissertation embarked on the journey to eciently connect the uidic and control domains into a vision for a modular and recongurable cyber-uidic architecture. The proposed architecture is based on the analysis of an extensive survey of existing technologies and systems, which conrmed that achieving the envisioned cyber-uidic architecture requires the design, fabrication, and operational aspects to be considered in symbiosis. The proposed cyber-uidic architecture is split into three loosely coupled parts; uidic, instrumentation, and virtual, where each part is deliberately designed in the context of its intrinsic relationships with the rest of the system. The cyber-uidic architecture was developed into a modular platform-based design, which allowed addressing the spectrum of accompanying challenges on a conceptual and technological level. The engineering research of the uidic system led to the development of a digital biochip with a large array of individually addressable electrodes, a novel design of recongurable embedded heaters, and an innovative low-cost coating method. This dissertation also discusses the design and implementation of the modular instrumentation system that embraces recongurability to provide an evolvable and scalable model for digital biochip instrumentation. We also conceptualized a software stack for programmable microuidics, including a uidic instruction set architecture, text and graphicalbased programming methods, and an execution model. The capabilities of the proposed cyber-uidic architecture and the constructed platform are demonstrated with several real-life protocols, namely performing a gene amplication by a polymerase chain reaction and magnetic beads-based enzymatic immunoassays targeting the detection of MRSA and SARS-CoV-2 spiked protein.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wunderlich, Marie Freia; Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke;
    Publisher: Department of Management, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark