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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Skaalum Petersen; Cecilie Bo Hansen; Marnar Fríðheim Kristiansen; Jógvan Páll Fjallsbak; +12 Authors

    AbstractOnly a few studies have assessed the long-term duration of the humoral immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).In this nationwide longitudinal study from the Faroe Islands with close to full participation of all individuals on the Islands with PCR confirmed COVID-19 during the two waves of infections in the spring and autumn 2020 (n=172 & n=233), samples were drawn at three longitudinal time points (3, 7 and 12 months and 1, 3 and 7 months after disease onset, respectively).Serum was analyzed with a direct quantitative IgG antibody binding ELISA to detect anti–SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies and a commercially available qualitative sandwich RBD ELISA kit measuring total antibody binding.The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95 % at all sampling time points for both assays. There was an overall decline in IgG titers over time in both waves (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparison showed that IgG declined significantly from the first sample until approximately 7 months in both waves (p < 0.001). After that, the antibody level still declined significantly (p < 0.001), but decelerated with an altered slope remaining fairly stable from 7 months to 12 months after infection. Interestingly, the IgG titers followed a U-shaped curve with higher antibody levels among the oldest (67+) and the youngest (0– 17) age groups compared to intermediate groups (p < 0.001).Our results indicate that COVID-19 convalescent individuals are likely to be protected from reinfection up to 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer. We believe our results can add to the understanding of natural immunity and the expected durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immune responses.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.medrxiv....arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.medrxiv....arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: César Melara-Gálvez; Emilio J. Morales-Fernández;

    A country’s global competitiveness is a fundamental element that facilitates the understanding of why some countries generate more wealth than others, as well as better sources of income in a sustainable manner. With globalization and market integration, governments are reviewing the current values of economic, business, social, and environmental variables that define multidimensional competitiveness indices. Central American countries face difficult economic situations with challenging political and social ramifications. This study presents a comparative analysis of the competitiveness of Central American countries in a globalized environment before the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, multivariate statistical analysis and Cluster analysis have been applied to data from the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index 2018, contrasting it with the publication of the same index for 2019. This methodology allows to rank countries with similar levels of competitiveness and shows the relative position of each country about countries belonging to the same group and countries belonging to other groups with different levels of competitiveness. The results show differences in competitiveness at the country level in 12 variables or composite indicators of the Global Competitiveness Index, the most important being Macroeconomic Stability, IT Adoption, and Infrastructure, with the most significant differences between countries. This result contributes to the current policy discussion on measures to achieve sustainable competitiveness of Central American economies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Sustainability
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Sustainability
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dianeh Rabi; razan Rabi; Arkan Jarrar; Sarah Maharma; +2 Authors

    AbstractPurposeOcular manifestations were reported in many recent observations that studied either the effect of COVID-19 directly on eyes or of face mask use. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the eyes and make a clear comparison of its direct and indirect effect from face mask-wearing.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study of both written and web-based questionnaires, distributed among a group of COVID-19 patients and a matched control group, the questionnaire consisted of common demographic data, COVID-19 infection history and its symptoms, focusing on ocular symptoms and the presence of conditions related to or cause eye symptoms. As well as the use of face masks that were assessed in terms of the complained ocular manifestationResultsOf 618 participants, 252 had COVID-19 and 366 never had COVID-19. Ocular manifestation among COVID-19 incidence was 44%, significantly higher than non-infected participants’ incidence (35.8%), adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (AOR, 95%CI); 1.45 (1.02-2.06)). Eye discharges (p-value = 0.033) and photosensitivity (p-value = 0.003) were noted more commonly among COVID-19 participants compared to healthy control. When comparing long periods of face mask use with each ocular symptom; dry eye based on OSDI, forging body sensation, eye pain and eye discharges, were found significantly common among extended periods of face mask use.ConclusionCOVID-19 pandemic affected eyes, both directly from the virus or from its preventive measure of face mask use.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.medrxiv....arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.medrxiv....arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Manal Al-Gethamy; Victor M. Corman; Raheela Hussain; Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq; +2 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Clinical Infectious ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Clinical Infectious Diseases
    Other literature type . Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Clinical Infectious ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Clinical Infectious Diseases
      Other literature type . Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adam Keene; Arieil L. Shiloh; Lewis A. Eisen; Jay Berger; +4 Authors

    Purpose: Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) in the Bronx, New York, was subjected to an unprecedented surge of critically ill patients with COVID-19 disease during the initial outbreak of the pandemic in New York State in the spring of 2020. It is important to describe our experience in order to assist hospitals in other areas of the country that may soon be subjected to similar surges. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the expansion of critical care medicine services at Montefiore during the COVID-19 surge in terms of space, staff, stuff, and systems. In addition, we report on a debriefing session held with a multidisciplinary group of frontline CCM providers at Montefiore. Findings: The surge of critically ill patients from COVID-19 disease necessitated a tripling of critical care bed capacity at (MMC), with attendant increased needs for staffing, equipment, and systematic innovations to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Feedback from a multidisciplinary group of frontline providers revealed multiple opportunities for improvement for the next potential surge at MMC as well as guidance for other hospitals. Conclusions: Given increasing cases and burden of critical illness from COVID-19 across the US, engineering safe and effective expansions of critical care capacity will be crucial. We hope that our description of what worked and what did not at MMC will help guide other hospitals in their pandemic preparedness.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Intensive...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Intensive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martínez, Pedro Rafael; Meléndez, Fátima;

    Este artículo representa una alternativa a la etnografía clásica en un contexto de aislamiento. En él presentamos una aproximación a las vivencias de la sociedad salvadoreña durante los primeros días de la pandemia de Covid-19 a partir de nuestra perspectiva en tanto que estudiantes egresados de antropología de la Universidad de El Salvador. En primer lugar, realizamos una síntesis de los aportes teóricos relevantes para el análisis de esta problemática, seguidamente exponemos el contexto nacional reciente para explicar las particularidades de la pandemia en El Salvador y presentamos dos viñetas auto-etnográficas. Finalmente presentamos las conclusiones. This paper presents an alternative to classic ethnography in a context of isolation. In it we present an approach to the experiences of Salvadoran society during the first days of the Covid-19 pandemic from our perspective as students of Anthropology from the University of El Salvador. First, we carry out a synthesis of the relevant theoretical contributions for the analysis of this problem, then we present the recent national context to explain the particularities of the pandemic in El Salvador and present two auto-ethnographic vignettes. Finally, we present the conclusions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Wendy Yesenia Escobar de González; Ruth Fernández de Quezada; Jenniffer Elizabeth Turcios Bonilla; +2 Authors

    Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos de los estudiantes de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de El Salvador sobre la enfermedad por Covid-19. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado con 456 estudiantes en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de El Salvador en mayo 2020, se elaboró una encuesta en línea diseñada en GoogleForms, incluyó un total de 26 preguntas de opción múltiple dividido en 3 partes. Los datos se analizaron en el software SPSS-26 e incluyó la prueba de χ2, prueba Z y análisis de regresión logística dicotómica; IC=95%. Resultados: De 426 respuestas, 337 fueron del sexo femenino (73.9%), de 21 a 25 años (44.39%), del departamento San Salvador (56.36%) en su mayoría del ciclo I en curso (27.63%). Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes niveles académicos; las comparaciones de proporciones sobre el nivel de conocimiento de COVID-19, mostró que los estudiantes de I, III y V ciclo obtuvieron conocimientos bajo-medio y los estudiantes de los ciclos IX y XI presentaron mayor proporción de conocimiento alto. El OR indicó que el sexo y edad no influyen en el tipo de conocimiento y para el nivel académico mostró que a mayor ciclo académico mayor conocimiento. Conclusión: Se evidenció un óptimo nivel de conocimiento sobre aspectos generales de la enfermedad, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre los diferentes niveles académicos; mostrando que con mayor nivel académico, mayor conocimiento a excepción del ciclo XIII que con 50% presento un conocimiento bajo-medio en general.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Minervaarrow_drop_down
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    Revista Minerva
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Revista Minerva
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Haydee Beatriz Cartagena de Leiva;

    En un contexto marcado por una situación de pandemia por COVID-19 se ha reflexionado mucho sobre el modelo actual de las empresas, donde su eje principal ha sido la generación de ingresos a su máximo nivel y la acumulación de capital como el indicador principal de éxito, muchas veces, poniendo en riesgo el medio ambiente, la dignidad de las personas y el entorno que les rodea; en fin, arriesgando la sostenibilidad de la vida. Ante esta situación es importante reflexionar sobre el actual modelo no sólo a nivel micro sino también macro, lo que significa tomar en cuenta aspectos como las políticas públicas y las relaciones que se establecen en las cadenas de valor en los diferentes rubros productivos. El modelo de economía social, solidaria y colaborativa propone un nuevo modelo de empresa, siempre basada en la eficiencia, productividad y sostenibilidad financiera, pero con un elemento diferenciador: poner en el centro de sus decisiones a las personas. Muchas experiencias en América Latina y otros países del mundo nos muestran que es posible, especialmente, porque esto puede contribuir a la construcción de un nuevo modelo de desarrollo sostenible. En este análisis se presentarán las características principales que definen esta propuesta, no sólo a través de los planteamientos teóricos existentes, sino también a través de las experiencias latinoamericanas que han mostrado resultados positivos, a nivel de las actividades productivas y también del entorno que les rodea. Realidad Empresarial No. 10, 2020: 79-88

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    Realidad Empresarial
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      Realidad Empresarial
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    Authors: Ekawati, LL; Arif, A; Hidayana, I; Nurhasim, A; +22 Authors

    AbstractThe impact of SARS-CoV-2 infections upon Indonesian health care workers (HCWs) remains unclear, as mortality data specific to HCWs is not systematically collected or analyzed in this setting. This report describes findings from a systematic collation, abstraction and analysis of HCW fatalities during the first 18 months of COVID-19 in Indonesia. HCW who died during the period of March 2020 to July 2021 across Indonesia were identified on Pusara Digital, a community web-based digital cemetery database dedicated to HCW. We calculated mortality rates and death risk ratio among HCWs and the general population. Qualitative methods explored concerns regarding mortality among HCWs. The analysis suggests that at least 1,545 HCWs died during the study period. The death of males and females HCWs were almost equally distributed (51% vs. 49%). Most were medical doctors and specialists (535, 35%), nurses (428, 28%), and midwives (359, 23%). Deaths most frequently occurred in the age group of 40 to 59 years old with the median age of 50 years (IQR: 39-59). At least 322 (21%) deaths occurred with pre-existing conditions, including 45 who were pregnant. We estimated a minimal HCW mortality rate in Indonesia at 1.707 deaths per 1000 HCW during the first 18 months of COVID-19. Provincial HCW mortality rates ranged from 0.136 (West Sulawesi) to 5.32 HCW deaths per 1000 HCWs (East Java). HCW had a significantly higher mortality rate than the general population (RR = 4.92, 95% CI 4.67 – 5.17). The COVID-19 event in Indonesia resulted in the loss of many hundreds of HCWs, most of them being senior physicians, nurses, and midwives. The HCW death rates is 5-times higher than everyone else. The sheer sparseness of the workforce requires more protective steps and a national systematic surveillance of occupational mortality is urgently needed in this setting.

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    PLOS Global Public Health
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    PLOS Global Public Health
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      PLOS Global Public Health
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      PLOS Global Public Health
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    Authors: Lara Palma, Ramón Obdulio;

    Afrontar cristianamente la realidad crítica que impone el fenómeno de la pandemia de la Covid, exige encontrar las claves de interpretación para intervenir en esa realidad de manera eficaz. La pandemia, como toda crisis, puede ser una gran oportunidad. El autor propone cuatro principios que sirven como claves de lectura y ejes de acción para que esta crisis, como cualquierotra situación crítica, sea aprovechada para avanzar hacia un futuro nuevo y mejor. La encarnación, la responsabilidad, la esperanza y la profecía, elevados a la categoría de principios, ofrecen la posibilidad de abordar cristianamente la crisis generada por la pandemia con la finalidad de rediseñar el mundo post-Covid de modo más digno y humano.

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    Teoría y Praxis
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Skaalum Petersen; Cecilie Bo Hansen; Marnar Fríðheim Kristiansen; Jógvan Páll Fjallsbak; +12 Authors

    AbstractOnly a few studies have assessed the long-term duration of the humoral immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).In this nationwide longitudinal study from the Faroe Islands with close to full participation of all individuals on the Islands with PCR confirmed COVID-19 during the two waves of infections in the spring and autumn 2020 (n=172 & n=233), samples were drawn at three longitudinal time points (3, 7 and 12 months and 1, 3 and 7 months after disease onset, respectively).Serum was analyzed with a direct quantitative IgG antibody binding ELISA to detect anti–SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies and a commercially available qualitative sandwich RBD ELISA kit measuring total antibody binding.The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95 % at all sampling time points for both assays. There was an overall decline in IgG titers over time in both waves (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparison showed that IgG declined significantly from the first sample until approximately 7 months in both waves (p < 0.001). After that, the antibody level still declined significantly (p < 0.001), but decelerated with an altered slope remaining fairly stable from 7 months to 12 months after infection. Interestingly, the IgG titers followed a U-shaped curve with higher antibody levels among the oldest (67+) and the youngest (0– 17) age groups compared to intermediate groups (p < 0.001).Our results indicate that COVID-19 convalescent individuals are likely to be protected from reinfection up to 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer. We believe our results can add to the understanding of natural immunity and the expected durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immune responses.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: César Melara-Gálvez; Emilio J. Morales-Fernández;

    A country’s global competitiveness is a fundamental element that facilitates the understanding of why some countries generate more wealth than others, as well as better sources of income in a sustainable manner. With globalization and market integration, governments are reviewing the current values of economic, business, social, and environmental variables that define multidimensional competitiveness indices. Central American countries face difficult economic situations with challenging political and social ramifications. This study presents a comparative analysis of the competitiveness of Central American countries in a globalized environment before the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, multivariate statistical analysis and Cluster analysis have been applied to data from the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index 2018, contrasting it with the publication of the same index for 2019. This methodology allows to rank countries with similar levels of competitiveness and shows the relative position of each country about countries belonging to the same group and countries belonging to other groups with different levels of competitiveness. The results show differences in competitiveness at the country level in 12 variables or composite indicators of the Global Competitiveness Index, the most important being Macroeconomic Stability, IT Adoption, and Infrastructure, with the most significant differences between countries. This result contributes to the current policy discussion on measures to achieve sustainable competitiveness of Central American economies.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2022
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      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dianeh Rabi; razan Rabi; Arkan Jarrar; Sarah Maharma; +2 Authors

    AbstractPurposeOcular manifestations were reported in many recent observations that studied either the effect of COVID-19 directly on eyes or of face mask use. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the eyes and make a clear comparison of its direct and indirect effect from face mask-wearing.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study of both written and web-based questionnaires, distributed among a group of COVID-19 patients and a matched control group, the questionnaire consisted of common demographic data, COVID-19 infection history and its symptoms, focusing on ocular symptoms and the presence of conditions related to or cause eye symptoms. As well as the use of face masks that were assessed in terms of the complained ocular manifestationResultsOf 618 participants, 252 had COVID-19 and 366 never had COVID-19. Ocular manifestation among COVID-19 incidence was 44%, significantly higher than non-infected participants’ incidence (35.8%), adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (AOR, 95%CI); 1.45 (1.02-2.06)). Eye discharges (p-value = 0.033) and photosensitivity (p-value = 0.003) were noted more commonly among COVID-19 participants compared to healthy control. When comparing long periods of face mask use with each ocular symptom; dry eye based on OSDI, forging body sensation, eye pain and eye discharges, were found significantly common among extended periods of face mask use.ConclusionCOVID-19 pandemic affected eyes, both directly from the virus or from its preventive measure of face mask use.

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    Authors: Manal Al-Gethamy; Victor M. Corman; Raheela Hussain; Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq; +2 Authors
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    Clinical Infectious Diseases
    Other literature type . Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Clinical Infectious Diseases
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