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153 Research products, page 1 of 16

  • COVID-19
  • Open Access
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Randewijk, Peter Jan;
    Publisher: European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI)
    Country: Denmark

    A brand new, state-of-the-art Microgrid Laboratory Setup was built at the Technical University of Denmark’s (DTU) Ballerup campus to aid with practical, hands-on teaching in the field of power system engineering. The primary focus of the Microgrid Setup is to closely emulate the behaviour of thermal power plants, e.g. emergency power plants, modern distributed combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and combined heat and power (CHP) plants, especially with regard to synchronous generator control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an additional requirement came to the fore, in that this Microgrid Setup should also be fully accessible via the web. The design was broadened to include remote, hands-on and flexible experimentation [1], in order for student groups to engage in remote collaborative learning [2].

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ram Kumar Singh; Martin Drews; Manuel De la Sen; Prashant K. Srivastava; Bambang H. Trisasongko; Manoj Kumar; Manish Kumar Pandey; Akash Anand; Sunder Singh; A. K. Pandey; +3 more
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Spain, Denmark

    The new COVID-19 coronavirus disease has emerged as a global threat and not just to human health but also the global economy. Due to the pandemic, most countries affected have therefore imposed periods of full or partial lockdowns to restrict community transmission. This has had the welcome but unexpected side effect that existing levels of atmospheric pollutants, particularly in cities, have temporarily declined. As found by several authors, air quality can inherently exacerbate the risks linked to respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. In this study, we explore patterns of air pollution for ten of the most affected countries in the world, in the context of the 2020 development of the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that the concentrations of some of the principal atmospheric pollutants were temporarily reduced during the extensive lockdowns in the spring. Secondly, we show that the seasonality of the atmospheric pollutants is not significantly affected by these temporary changes, indicating that observed variations in COVID-19 conditions are likely to be linked to air quality. On this background, we confirm that air pollution may be a good predictor for the local and national severity of COVID-19 infections. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Government, Grant RTI2018-354 094336-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE), the Spanish Carlos III Health Institute, COV 20/01213, and the Basque Government, Grant IT1207-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Carsten Thure Kirkeby; Matthew Denwood; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; Kåre Mølbak; Camilla Holten Møller; Robert Leo Skov; Tyra Grove Krause; Morten Rasmussen; Raphael Niklaus Sieber; +9 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and new variants emerge. Using nationwide Danish data, we estimate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2 within households. Among 22,678 primary cases, we identified 17,319 secondary infections among 50,588 household contacts during a 1–7 day follow-up. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 29% and 39% in households infected with Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. BA.2 was associated with increased susceptibility of infection for unvaccinated household contacts (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.99; 95%–CI 1.72-2.31), fully vaccinated contacts (OR 2.26; 95%–CI 1.95–2.62) and booster-vaccinated contacts (OR 2.65; 95%–CI 2.29–3.08), compared to BA.1. We also found increased infectiousness from unvaccinated primary cases infected with BA.2 compared to BA.1 (OR 2.47; 95%–CI 2.15–2.84), but not for fully vaccinated (OR 0.66; 95%–CI 0.57–0.78) or booster-vaccinated primary cases (OR 0.69; 95%–CI 0.59–0.82). Omicron BA.2 is inherently more transmissible than BA.1. Its immune-evasive properties also reduce the protective effect of vaccination against infection, but do not increase infectiousness of breakthrough infections from vaccinated individuals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peter M. H. Heegaard; Michael Sturek; Mouhamad Alloosh; Graham J. Belsham;
    Country: Denmark

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 has created an urgent need for animal models to enable study of basic infection and disease mechanisms and for development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Most research on animal models for COVID-19 has been directed toward rodents, transgenic rodents, and non-human primates. The primary focus has been on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Among investigated species, irrespective of ACE2 spike protein binding, only mild (or no) disease has occurred following infection with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that ACE2 may be necessary for infection but is not sufficient to determine the outcome of infection. The common trait of all species investigated as COVID models is their healthy status prior to virus challenge. In contrast, the vast majority of severe COVID-19 cases occur in people with chronic comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, and/or cardiovascular disease. Healthy pigs express ACE2 protein that binds the viral spike protein but they are not susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2. However, certain pig breeds, such as the Ossabaw pig, can reproducibly be made obese and show most aspects of the metabolic syndrome, thus resembling the more than 80% of the critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals. We urge considering infection with porcine respiratory coronavirus of metabolic syndrome pigs, such as the obese Ossabaw pig, as a highly relevant animal model of severe COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Kåre Mølbak; Matt Denwood; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; Camilla Holten Møller; Morten Rasmussen; Arieh Sierra Cohen; Marc Stegger; Jannik Fonager; Raphael Niklaus Sieber; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractEffective vaccines protect individuals by not only reducing the susceptibility to infection, but also reducing the infectiousness of breakthrough infections in vaccinated cases. To disentangle the vaccine effectiveness against susceptibility to infection (VES) and vaccine effectiveness against infectiousness (VEI), we took advantage of Danish national data comprising 24,693 households with a primary case of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Delta Variant of Concern, 2021) including 53,584 household contacts. In this setting, we estimated VES as 61% (95%-CI: 59-63), when the primary case was unvaccinated, and VEI as 31% (95%-CI: 26-36), when the household contact was unvaccinated. Furthermore, unvaccinated secondary cases with an infection exhibited a three-fold higher viral load compared to fully vaccinated secondary cases with a breakthrough infection. Our results demonstrate that vaccinations reduce susceptibility to infection as well as infectiousness, which should be considered by policy makers when seeking to understand the public health impact of vaccination against transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bjorgvinsdottir, Unnur Jona; Carstensen, Laura Stentoft; Colliander, Anna; Jaehger, Ditte Elisabeth; Veiga, Gael Clergeaud; Halldorsdottir, Holmfriour Rosa; Jorgensen, Matilde Smaerup; Christensen, Esben; Vangsgaard, Sara; Koukos, Aristeidis; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background Therapeutic cancer vaccines represent an intriguing approach to cancer immunotherapy and they have been widely explored for the last decade. As opposed to standard modalities, such as surgery and chemotherapy, an effective vaccine-based immune response may provide protection against metastatic disease. Peptide based vaccines can elicit a highly targeted immune response and include a simple, fast and cost-effective production due to recent developments in solid phase peptide synthesis. Recent development within the field of COVID-19 vaccines has highlighted the use of lipid nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery system for vaccination. Incorporation of peptide antigens into engineered micro- and nanoparticles enables induction of a potent T cell response, partly attributed to prolonged and improved antigen presentation by dendritic cells after particle internalization. Peptide-based vaccines are often based on delivery of high-affinity T cell model epitopes. However, the therapeutic relevance of vaccination with low-affinity epitopes is gaining increasing support following the observation that high-affinity epitopes can promote T cell exhaustion resulting from excessive T cell receptor stimulation. Here, we characterize and evaluate a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) vaccine platform that is suited for delivery of both high- and low-affinity epitopes in the setting of therapeutic cancer vaccination.Methods LNPs were formulated to carry high- or low-affinity peptide epitopes from Ovalbumin (OVA) in conjunction with the TLR7 agonist 1V270. The peptides were anchored to the surface of the LNPs via a reducible DSPE-PEG2000 linker system. The therapeutic vaccine platform was evaluated in vivo both as a monotherapy and in combination with adoptive transfer of OT-I T cells in the syngeneic B16-OVA murine melanoma model.Results The LNP vaccine promotes efficient antigen-release and ensures high, continuous antigen-presentation by antigen-presenting cells. While the LNPs can be administered via multiple routes, intratumoral vaccination favors enhanced particle uptake in dendritic cells in the tumor. Formulated with either high- or low-affinity epitopes, intratumorally delivered vaccine particles promote superior tumor-infiltration of adoptively transferred T cells, which translates into potent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. Finally, we show that vaccination with both CD8+ and CD4+ epitopes can delay tumor growth and prolong survival in an antigen-dependent manner.Conclusions This study presents a versatile and multi-purpose LNP vaccine platform that ensures effective delivery of high- and low-affinity epitopes. Intratumoral administration promotes vaccine particle uptake by intratumoral dendritic cells, which is followed by T cell infiltration and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Melcher, Ulrich; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Papetti, Alice; Grasland, Béatrice; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Hulst, Marcel; Hanke, Dennis; Pohlmann, Anne; +7 more
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark
    Project: EC | COMPARE (643476)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, strain CV777, was initially characterized in 1978 as the causative agent of a disease first identified in the UK in 1971. This coronavirus has been widely distributed among laboratories and has been passaged both within pigs and in cell culture. To determine the variability between different stocks of the PEDV strain CV777, sequencing of the full-length genome (ca. 28kb) has been performed in 6 different laboratories, using different protocols. Not surprisingly, each of the different full genome sequences were distinct from each other and from the reference sequence (Accession number AF353511) but they are >99% identical. Unique and shared differences between sequences were identified. The coding region for the surface-exposed spike protein showed the highest proportion of variability including both point mutations and small deletions. The predicted expression of the ORF3 gene product was more dramatically affected in three different variants of this virus through either loss of the initiation codon or gain of a premature termination codon. The genome of one isolate had a substantially rearranged 5´-terminal sequence. This rearrangement was validated through the analysis of sub-genomic mRNAs from infected cells. It is clearly important to know the features of the specific sample of CV777 being used for experimental studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Prateek Bansal; Roselinde Kessels; Rico Krueger; Daniel J. Graham;
    Countries: Denmark, Netherlands

    The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted people's travel behaviour and introduced uncertainty in the demand for public transport. To investigate user preferences for travel by London Underground during the pandemic, we conducted a stated choice experiment among its pre-pandemic users (N = 961). We analysed the collected data using multinomial and latent class logit models. Our discrete choice analysis provides two sets of results. First, we derive the crowding multiplier estimate of travel time valuation (i.e., the ratio of the value of travel time in uncrowded and crowded situations) for London underground users. The results indicate that travel time valuation of Underground users increases by 73% when it operates at technical capacity. Second, we estimate the sensitivity of the preference for the London Underground relative to the epidemic situation (confirmed new COVID-19 cases) and interventions (vaccination rates and mandatory face masks). The sensitivity analysis suggests that making face masks mandatory is a main driver for recovering the demand for the London underground. The latent class model reveals substantial preference heterogeneity. For instance, while the average effect of mandatory face masks is positive, the preferences of 30% of pre-pandemic users for travel by the Underground are negatively affected. The positive effect of mandatory face masks on the likelihood of taking the Underground is less pronounced among males with age below 40 years, and a monthly income below 10,000 GBP. The estimated preference sensitivities and crowding multipliers are relevant for supply–demand management in transit systems and the calibration of advanced epidemiological models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tang, Julian W.; Bahnfleth, William P.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.; Buonanno, Giorgio; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kurnitski, Jarek; Li, Yuguo; Miller, Shelly; Sekhar, Chandra; Morawska, Lidia; +7 more
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom

    The Covid-19 pandemic has caused untold disruption and enhanced mortality rates around the world. Understanding the mechanisms for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is key to preventing further spread but there is confusion over the meaning of “airborne” whenever transmission is discussed. Scientific ambivalence originates from evidence published many years ago, which has generated mythological beliefs that obscure current thinking. This article gathers together and explores some of the most commonly held dogmas on airborne transmission in order to stimulate revision of the science in the light of current evidence. Six ‘myths’ are presented, explained, and ultimately refuted on the basis of recently published papers and expert opinion from previous work related to similar viruses. There is little doubt that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via a range of airborne particle sizes subject to all the usual ventilation parameters and human behaviour. Experts from specialties encompassing aerosol studies, ventilation, engineering, physics, virology and clinical medicine have joined together to present this review, in order to consolidate the evidence for airborne transmission mechanisms and offer justification for modern strategies for prevention and control of Covid-19 in healthcare and community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choudhary, Arjun; Choudhary, Gaurav; Pareek, Kapil; Kunndra, Chetanya; Luthra, Jatin; Dragoni, Nicola;
    Country: Denmark

    In 2019, a virus infection, COVID-19, traveled across the oceans, gained foothold in many countries, and started infecting the citizens of those countries. Soon, this virus was labeled a “pandemic” by the World Health Organization and was subsequently dubbed the COVID-19 virus. With the virus spreading across the globe, countries started going into lockdowns to curb the spread of the infection. The world came to a halt as people were asked not to leave their homes, offices, and institutions were forcefully closed. This scenario was entirely unexpected for most countries, institutions, and indi-viduals. Amid these lockdowns, people started flocking towards the virtual world. This pandemic showed us that things that were supposed to be conducted physically were now being conducted on-line. Work-from-home (WFH) and study-from-home (SFH) terms and culture came into existence to ensure continuity of services. While the world was upside down and was trying to understand these new dynamics, cybercriminals took advantage of the chaos and carried out the rampant cyber crime on already suffering people and organizations. Cybercriminals known to monetize any recent system changes took this as a golden opportunity and were ready with their new modus operandi during this pandemic. In this survey paper, we have assessed and classified cyber crimes committed during the pandemic across the world. During this period, Malware attacks, Data breaches, Banking frauds, Job frauds, etc., were common. To prevent rampant cyber crimes in such situations, we have also discussed future generation solutions to tackle such issues so that critical systems and procedural checks must be in place.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
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includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
153 Research products, page 1 of 16
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Randewijk, Peter Jan;
    Publisher: European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI)
    Country: Denmark

    A brand new, state-of-the-art Microgrid Laboratory Setup was built at the Technical University of Denmark’s (DTU) Ballerup campus to aid with practical, hands-on teaching in the field of power system engineering. The primary focus of the Microgrid Setup is to closely emulate the behaviour of thermal power plants, e.g. emergency power plants, modern distributed combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and combined heat and power (CHP) plants, especially with regard to synchronous generator control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an additional requirement came to the fore, in that this Microgrid Setup should also be fully accessible via the web. The design was broadened to include remote, hands-on and flexible experimentation [1], in order for student groups to engage in remote collaborative learning [2].

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ram Kumar Singh; Martin Drews; Manuel De la Sen; Prashant K. Srivastava; Bambang H. Trisasongko; Manoj Kumar; Manish Kumar Pandey; Akash Anand; Sunder Singh; A. K. Pandey; +3 more
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Spain, Denmark

    The new COVID-19 coronavirus disease has emerged as a global threat and not just to human health but also the global economy. Due to the pandemic, most countries affected have therefore imposed periods of full or partial lockdowns to restrict community transmission. This has had the welcome but unexpected side effect that existing levels of atmospheric pollutants, particularly in cities, have temporarily declined. As found by several authors, air quality can inherently exacerbate the risks linked to respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. In this study, we explore patterns of air pollution for ten of the most affected countries in the world, in the context of the 2020 development of the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that the concentrations of some of the principal atmospheric pollutants were temporarily reduced during the extensive lockdowns in the spring. Secondly, we show that the seasonality of the atmospheric pollutants is not significantly affected by these temporary changes, indicating that observed variations in COVID-19 conditions are likely to be linked to air quality. On this background, we confirm that air pollution may be a good predictor for the local and national severity of COVID-19 infections. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Government, Grant RTI2018-354 094336-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE), the Spanish Carlos III Health Institute, COV 20/01213, and the Basque Government, Grant IT1207-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Carsten Thure Kirkeby; Matthew Denwood; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; Kåre Mølbak; Camilla Holten Møller; Robert Leo Skov; Tyra Grove Krause; Morten Rasmussen; Raphael Niklaus Sieber; +9 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and new variants emerge. Using nationwide Danish data, we estimate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2 within households. Among 22,678 primary cases, we identified 17,319 secondary infections among 50,588 household contacts during a 1–7 day follow-up. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 29% and 39% in households infected with Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. BA.2 was associated with increased susceptibility of infection for unvaccinated household contacts (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.99; 95%–CI 1.72-2.31), fully vaccinated contacts (OR 2.26; 95%–CI 1.95–2.62) and booster-vaccinated contacts (OR 2.65; 95%–CI 2.29–3.08), compared to BA.1. We also found increased infectiousness from unvaccinated primary cases infected with BA.2 compared to BA.1 (OR 2.47; 95%–CI 2.15–2.84), but not for fully vaccinated (OR 0.66; 95%–CI 0.57–0.78) or booster-vaccinated primary cases (OR 0.69; 95%–CI 0.59–0.82). Omicron BA.2 is inherently more transmissible than BA.1. Its immune-evasive properties also reduce the protective effect of vaccination against infection, but do not increase infectiousness of breakthrough infections from vaccinated individuals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peter M. H. Heegaard; Michael Sturek; Mouhamad Alloosh; Graham J. Belsham;
    Country: Denmark

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 has created an urgent need for animal models to enable study of basic infection and disease mechanisms and for development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Most research on animal models for COVID-19 has been directed toward rodents, transgenic rodents, and non-human primates. The primary focus has been on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Among investigated species, irrespective of ACE2 spike protein binding, only mild (or no) disease has occurred following infection with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that ACE2 may be necessary for infection but is not sufficient to determine the outcome of infection. The common trait of all species investigated as COVID models is their healthy status prior to virus challenge. In contrast, the vast majority of severe COVID-19 cases occur in people with chronic comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, and/or cardiovascular disease. Healthy pigs express ACE2 protein that binds the viral spike protein but they are not susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2. However, certain pig breeds, such as the Ossabaw pig, can reproducibly be made obese and show most aspects of the metabolic syndrome, thus resembling the more than 80% of the critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals. We urge considering infection with porcine respiratory coronavirus of metabolic syndrome pigs, such as the obese Ossabaw pig, as a highly relevant animal model of severe COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Kåre Mølbak; Matt Denwood; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; Camilla Holten Møller; Morten Rasmussen; Arieh Sierra Cohen; Marc Stegger; Jannik Fonager; Raphael Niklaus Sieber; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractEffective vaccines protect individuals by not only reducing the susceptibility to infection, but also reducing the infectiousness of breakthrough infections in vaccinated cases. To disentangle the vaccine effectiveness against susceptibility to infection (VES) and vaccine effectiveness against infectiousness (VEI), we took advantage of Danish national data comprising 24,693 households with a primary case of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Delta Variant of Concern, 2021) including 53,584 household contacts. In this setting, we estimated VES as 61% (95%-CI: 59-63), when the primary case was unvaccinated, and VEI as 31% (95%-CI: 26-36), when the household contact was unvaccinated. Furthermore, unvaccinated secondary cases with an infection exhibited a three-fold higher viral load compared to fully vaccinated secondary cases with a breakthrough infection. Our results demonstrate that vaccinations reduce susceptibility to infection as well as infectiousness, which should be considered by policy makers when seeking to understand the public health impact of vaccination against transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bjorgvinsdottir, Unnur Jona; Carstensen, Laura Stentoft; Colliander, Anna; Jaehger, Ditte Elisabeth; Veiga, Gael Clergeaud; Halldorsdottir, Holmfriour Rosa; Jorgensen, Matilde Smaerup; Christensen, Esben; Vangsgaard, Sara; Koukos, Aristeidis; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background Therapeutic cancer vaccines represent an intriguing approach to cancer immunotherapy and they have been widely explored for the last decade. As opposed to standard modalities, such as surgery and chemotherapy, an effective vaccine-based immune response may provide protection against metastatic disease. Peptide based vaccines can elicit a highly targeted immune response and include a simple, fast and cost-effective production due to recent developments in solid phase peptide synthesis. Recent development within the field of COVID-19 vaccines has highlighted the use of lipid nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery system for vaccination. Incorporation of peptide antigens into engineered micro- and nanoparticles enables induction of a potent T cell response, partly attributed to prolonged and improved antigen presentation by dendritic cells after particle internalization. Peptide-based vaccines are often based on delivery of high-affinity T cell model epitopes. However, the therapeutic relevance of vaccination with low-affinity epitopes is gaining increasing support following the observation that high-affinity epitopes can promote T cell exhaustion resulting from excessive T cell receptor stimulation. Here, we characterize and evaluate a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) vaccine platform that is suited for delivery of both high- and low-affinity epitopes in the setting of therapeutic cancer vaccination.Methods LNPs were formulated to carry high- or low-affinity peptide epitopes from Ovalbumin (OVA) in conjunction with the TLR7 agonist 1V270. The peptides were anchored to the surface of the LNPs via a reducible DSPE-PEG2000 linker system. The therapeutic vaccine platform was evaluated in vivo both as a monotherapy and in combination with adoptive transfer of OT-I T cells in the syngeneic B16-OVA murine melanoma model.Results The LNP vaccine promotes efficient antigen-release and ensures high, continuous antigen-presentation by antigen-presenting cells. While the LNPs can be administered via multiple routes, intratumoral vaccination favors enhanced particle uptake in dendritic cells in the tumor. Formulated with either high- or low-affinity epitopes, intratumorally delivered vaccine particles promote superior tumor-infiltration of adoptively transferred T cells, which translates into potent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. Finally, we show that vaccination with both CD8+ and CD4+ epitopes can delay tumor growth and prolong survival in an antigen-dependent manner.Conclusions This study presents a versatile and multi-purpose LNP vaccine platform that ensures effective delivery of high- and low-affinity epitopes. Intratumoral administration promotes vaccine particle uptake by intratumoral dendritic cells, which is followed by T cell infiltration and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Melcher, Ulrich; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Papetti, Alice; Grasland, Béatrice; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Hulst, Marcel; Hanke, Dennis; Pohlmann, Anne; +7 more
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark
    Project: EC | COMPARE (643476)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, strain CV777, was initially characterized in 1978 as the causative agent of a disease first identified in the UK in 1971. This coronavirus has been widely distributed among laboratories and has been passaged both within pigs and in cell culture. To determine the variability between different stocks of the PEDV strain CV777, sequencing of the full-length genome (ca. 28kb) has been performed in 6 different laboratories, using different protocols. Not surprisingly, each of the different full genome sequences were distinct from each other and from the reference sequence (Accession number AF353511) but they are >99% identical. Unique and shared differences between sequences were identified. The coding region for the surface-exposed spike protein showed the highest proportion of variability including both point mutations and small deletions. The predicted expression of the ORF3 gene product was more dramatically affected in three different variants of this virus through either loss of the initiation codon or gain of a premature termination codon. The genome of one isolate had a substantially rearranged 5´-terminal sequence. This rearrangement was validated through the analysis of sub-genomic mRNAs from infected cells. It is clearly important to know the features of the specific sample of CV777 being used for experimental studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Prateek Bansal; Roselinde Kessels; Rico Krueger; Daniel J. Graham;
    Countries: Denmark, Netherlands

    The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted people's travel behaviour and introduced uncertainty in the demand for public transport. To investigate user preferences for travel by London Underground during the pandemic, we conducted a stated choice experiment among its pre-pandemic users (N = 961). We analysed the collected data using multinomial and latent class logit models. Our discrete choice analysis provides two sets of results. First, we derive the crowding multiplier estimate of travel time valuation (i.e., the ratio of the value of travel time in uncrowded and crowded situations) for London underground users. The results indicate that travel time valuation of Underground users increases by 73% when it operates at technical capacity. Second, we estimate the sensitivity of the preference for the London Underground relative to the epidemic situation (confirmed new COVID-19 cases) and interventions (vaccination rates and mandatory face masks). The sensitivity analysis suggests that making face masks mandatory is a main driver for recovering the demand for the London underground. The latent class model reveals substantial preference heterogeneity. For instance, while the average effect of mandatory face masks is positive, the preferences of 30% of pre-pandemic users for travel by the Underground are negatively affected. The positive effect of mandatory face masks on the likelihood of taking the Underground is less pronounced among males with age below 40 years, and a monthly income below 10,000 GBP. The estimated preference sensitivities and crowding multipliers are relevant for supply–demand management in transit systems and the calibration of advanced epidemiological models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tang, Julian W.; Bahnfleth, William P.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.; Buonanno, Giorgio; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kurnitski, Jarek; Li, Yuguo; Miller, Shelly; Sekhar, Chandra; Morawska, Lidia; +7 more
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom

    The Covid-19 pandemic has caused untold disruption and enhanced mortality rates around the world. Understanding the mechanisms for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is key to preventing further spread but there is confusion over the meaning of “airborne” whenever transmission is discussed. Scientific ambivalence originates from evidence published many years ago, which has generated mythological beliefs that obscure current thinking. This article gathers together and explores some of the most commonly held dogmas on airborne transmission in order to stimulate revision of the science in the light of current evidence. Six ‘myths’ are presented, explained, and ultimately refuted on the basis of recently published papers and expert opinion from previous work related to similar viruses. There is little doubt that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via a range of airborne particle sizes subject to all the usual ventilation parameters and human behaviour. Experts from specialties encompassing aerosol studies, ventilation, engineering, physics, virology and clinical medicine have joined together to present this review, in order to consolidate the evidence for airborne transmission mechanisms and offer justification for modern strategies for prevention and control of Covid-19 in healthcare and community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choudhary, Arjun; Choudhary, Gaurav; Pareek, Kapil; Kunndra, Chetanya; Luthra, Jatin; Dragoni, Nicola;
    Country: Denmark

    In 2019, a virus infection, COVID-19, traveled across the oceans, gained foothold in many countries, and started infecting the citizens of those countries. Soon, this virus was labeled a “pandemic” by the World Health Organization and was subsequently dubbed the COVID-19 virus. With the virus spreading across the globe, countries started going into lockdowns to curb the spread of the infection. The world came to a halt as people were asked not to leave their homes, offices, and institutions were forcefully closed. This scenario was entirely unexpected for most countries, institutions, and indi-viduals. Amid these lockdowns, people started flocking towards the virtual world. This pandemic showed us that things that were supposed to be conducted physically were now being conducted on-line. Work-from-home (WFH) and study-from-home (SFH) terms and culture came into existence to ensure continuity of services. While the world was upside down and was trying to understand these new dynamics, cybercriminals took advantage of the chaos and carried out the rampant cyber crime on already suffering people and organizations. Cybercriminals known to monetize any recent system changes took this as a golden opportunity and were ready with their new modus operandi during this pandemic. In this survey paper, we have assessed and classified cyber crimes committed during the pandemic across the world. During this period, Malware attacks, Data breaches, Banking frauds, Job frauds, etc., were common. To prevent rampant cyber crimes in such situations, we have also discussed future generation solutions to tackle such issues so that critical systems and procedural checks must be in place.