Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
539 Research products, page 1 of 54

  • COVID-19
  • Open Access
  • DK
  • PURE Aarhus University
  • Theses@asb

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole J. Hamming; Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla; Gabrielle Vieyres; Ronald Dijkman; Sanne Jørgensen; Hashaam Akhtar; Piotr Siupka; Thomas Pietschmann; Volker Thiel; Rune Hartmann;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SNSF | Impact of RNA modificatio... (132898)

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNk4 ORF. The expression of IFNk4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNk4, which signals through the IFNkR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNk4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNk3. However, the secretion of IFNk4 is impaired compared to that of IFNk3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNk4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNk4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection. The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion of IFNλ4 is impaired compared to that of IFNλ3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNλ4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNλ4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R. Talotta; Shervin Bahrami; Magdalena Janina Laska;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate in silico the presence of nucleotide sequence complementarity between the RNA genome of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human non-coding (nc)RNA genes.METHODS: The FASTA sequence (NC_045512.2) of each of the 11 SARS-CoV-2 isolate Wuhan-Hu-1 genes was retrieved from NCBI.nlm.nih.gov/gene and the Ensembl.org library interrogated for any base-pair match with human ncRNA genes. SARS-CoV-2 gene-matched human ncRNAs were screened for functional activity using bioinformatic analysis. Finally, associations between identified ncRNAs and human diseases were searched in GWAS databases.RESULTS: A total of 252 matches were found between the nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 genes and human ncRNAs. With the exception of two small nuclear RNAs, all of them were long non-coding (lnc)RNAs expressed mainly in testis and central nervous system under physiological conditions. The percentage of alignment ranged from 91.30% to 100% with a mean nucleotide alignment length of 17.5 ± 2.4. Thirty-three (13.9%) of them contained predicted R-loop forming sequences, but none of these intersected the complementary sequences of SARS-CoV-2. However, in 31 cases matches fell on ncRNA regulatory sites, whose adjacent coding genes are mostly involved in cancer, immunological and neurological pathways. Similarly, several polymorphic variants of detected non-coding genes have been associated with neuropsychiatric and proliferative disorders.CONCLUSION: This pivotal in silico study shows that SARS-CoV-2 genes have Watson-Crick nucleotide complementarity to human ncRNA sequences, potentially disrupting ncRNA epigenetic control of target genes. It remains to be elucidated whether this could result in the development of human disease in the long term.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kamille Fogh; Jarl E. Strange; Bibi F. S. S. Scharff; Alexandra R. R. Eriksen; Rasmus B. Hasselbalch; Henning Bundgaard; Susanne D. Nielsen; Charlotte S. Jørgensen; Christian Erikstrup; Jakob Norsk; +24 more
    Country: Denmark

    "Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nakul Mandal; Geoffrey P. Lewis; Steven K. Fisher; Steffen Heegaard; Jan Ulrik Prause; Morten la Cour; Henrik Vorum; Bent Honoré;
    Countries: Denmark, United States

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach.Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days the eyes were enucleated and the vitreous was removed. The vitreous samples were evaluated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the differentially expressed proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry.Results. Ten protein spots were found to be at least twofold differentially expressed when comparing the vitreous samples of the sham and retinal detachment surgery groups. Protein spots that were upregulated in the vitreous following retinal detachment were identified as albumin fragments, and those downregulated were found to be peroxiredoxin 2, collagen-Iα1 fragment, andα-1-antiproteinase F.Conclusions. Proteomic investigation of the rabbit vitreous has identified a set of proteins that help further our understanding of the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and its complications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eskild Petersen; David S.C. Hui; Stanley Perlman; Alimuddin Zumla;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah J. Stock; Helga Zoega; Meredith Brockway; Rachel H Mulholland; Jessica E. Miller; Jasper V Been; Rachael Wood; Ishaya Ibrahim Abok; Belal Alshaikh; Adejumoke I. Ayede; +40 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Switzerland, Netherlands, Peru, Australia

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death worldwide, but the causes of preterm birth are largely unknown. During the early COVID-19 lockdowns, dramatic reductions in preterm birth were reported; however, these trends may be offset by increases in stillbirth rates. It is important to study these trends globally as the pandemic continues, and to understand the underlying cause(s). Lockdowns have dramatically impacted maternal workload, access to healthcare, hygiene practices, and air pollution - all of which could impact perinatal outcomes and might affect pregnant women differently in different regions of the world. In the international Perinatal Outcomes in the Pandemic (iPOP) Study, we will seize the unique opportunity offered by the COVID-19 pandemic to answer urgent questions about perinatal health. In the first two study phases, we will use population-based aggregate data and standardized outcome definitions to: 1) Determine rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth and describe changes during lockdowns; and assess if these changes are consistent globally, or differ by region and income setting, 2) Determine if the magnitude of changes in adverse perinatal outcomes during lockdown are modified by regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates, lockdown stringency, adherence to lockdown measures, air quality, or other social and economic markers, obtained from publicly available datasets. We will undertake an interrupted time series analysis covering births from January 2015 through July 2020. The iPOP Study will involve at least 121 researchers in 37 countries, including obstetricians, neonatologists, epidemiologists, public health researchers, environmental scientists, and policymakers. We will leverage the most disruptive and widespread “natural experiment” of our lifetime to make rapid discoveries about preterm birth. Whether the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening or unexpectedly improving perinatal outcomes, our research will provide critical new information to shape prenatal care strategies throughout (and well beyond) the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensby, Anne; Mogensen, Oliver Bendix Gammeljord; Svejvig, Per;
    Publisher: Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark

    The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions. The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nyuk Ling Ma; Wanxi Peng; Chin Fhong Soon; Muhamad Fairus Noor Hassim; Suzana Misbah; Zaidah Rahmat; Wilson Thau Lym Yong; Christian Sonne;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The recently emerged coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been characterised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), is impacting all parts of human society including agriculture, manufacturing, and tertiary sectors involving all service provision industries. This paper aims to give an overview of potential host reservoirs that could cause pandemic outbreak caused by zoonotic transmission. Amongst all, continues surveillance in slaughterhouse for possible pathogens transmission is needed to prevent next pandemic outbreak. This paper also summary the potential threats of pandemic to agriculture and aquaculture sector that control almost the total food supply chain and market. The history lesson from the past, emerging and reemerging infectious disease including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012 and the recent COVID-19 should give us some clue to improve especially the governance to be more ready for next coming pandemic. Highlights • Urbanization promotes the occurrence of zoonotic diseases transmission. • The outbreak of COVID19 affected the global food supply chain. • In preparedness to prevent pandemic outbreak, the continues surveillance of food safety is obligated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pernille Kølbæk; Bettina Nørremark; Søren Dinesen Østergaard;
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
539 Research products, page 1 of 54
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole J. Hamming; Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla; Gabrielle Vieyres; Ronald Dijkman; Sanne Jørgensen; Hashaam Akhtar; Piotr Siupka; Thomas Pietschmann; Volker Thiel; Rune Hartmann;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SNSF | Impact of RNA modificatio... (132898)

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNk4 ORF. The expression of IFNk4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNk4, which signals through the IFNkR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNk4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNk3. However, the secretion of IFNk4 is impaired compared to that of IFNk3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNk4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNk4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection. The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion of IFNλ4 is impaired compared to that of IFNλ3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNλ4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNλ4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R. Talotta; Shervin Bahrami; Magdalena Janina Laska;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate in silico the presence of nucleotide sequence complementarity between the RNA genome of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human non-coding (nc)RNA genes.METHODS: The FASTA sequence (NC_045512.2) of each of the 11 SARS-CoV-2 isolate Wuhan-Hu-1 genes was retrieved from NCBI.nlm.nih.gov/gene and the Ensembl.org library interrogated for any base-pair match with human ncRNA genes. SARS-CoV-2 gene-matched human ncRNAs were screened for functional activity using bioinformatic analysis. Finally, associations between identified ncRNAs and human diseases were searched in GWAS databases.RESULTS: A total of 252 matches were found between the nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 genes and human ncRNAs. With the exception of two small nuclear RNAs, all of them were long non-coding (lnc)RNAs expressed mainly in testis and central nervous system under physiological conditions. The percentage of alignment ranged from 91.30% to 100% with a mean nucleotide alignment length of 17.5 ± 2.4. Thirty-three (13.9%) of them contained predicted R-loop forming sequences, but none of these intersected the complementary sequences of SARS-CoV-2. However, in 31 cases matches fell on ncRNA regulatory sites, whose adjacent coding genes are mostly involved in cancer, immunological and neurological pathways. Similarly, several polymorphic variants of detected non-coding genes have been associated with neuropsychiatric and proliferative disorders.CONCLUSION: This pivotal in silico study shows that SARS-CoV-2 genes have Watson-Crick nucleotide complementarity to human ncRNA sequences, potentially disrupting ncRNA epigenetic control of target genes. It remains to be elucidated whether this could result in the development of human disease in the long term.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kamille Fogh; Jarl E. Strange; Bibi F. S. S. Scharff; Alexandra R. R. Eriksen; Rasmus B. Hasselbalch; Henning Bundgaard; Susanne D. Nielsen; Charlotte S. Jørgensen; Christian Erikstrup; Jakob Norsk; +24 more
    Country: Denmark

    "Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nakul Mandal; Geoffrey P. Lewis; Steven K. Fisher; Steffen Heegaard; Jan Ulrik Prause; Morten la Cour; Henrik Vorum; Bent Honoré;
    Countries: Denmark, United States

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach.Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days the eyes were enucleated and the vitreous was removed. The vitreous samples were evaluated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the differentially expressed proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry.Results. Ten protein spots were found to be at least twofold differentially expressed when comparing the vitreous samples of the sham and retinal detachment surgery groups. Protein spots that were upregulated in the vitreous following retinal detachment were identified as albumin fragments, and those downregulated were found to be peroxiredoxin 2, collagen-Iα1 fragment, andα-1-antiproteinase F.Conclusions. Proteomic investigation of the rabbit vitreous has identified a set of proteins that help further our understanding of the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and its complications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eskild Petersen; David S.C. Hui; Stanley Perlman; Alimuddin Zumla;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah J. Stock; Helga Zoega; Meredith Brockway; Rachel H Mulholland; Jessica E. Miller; Jasper V Been; Rachael Wood; Ishaya Ibrahim Abok; Belal Alshaikh; Adejumoke I. Ayede; +40 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Switzerland, Netherlands, Peru, Australia

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death worldwide, but the causes of preterm birth are largely unknown. During the early COVID-19 lockdowns, dramatic reductions in preterm birth were reported; however, these trends may be offset by increases in stillbirth rates. It is important to study these trends globally as the pandemic continues, and to understand the underlying cause(s). Lockdowns have dramatically impacted maternal workload, access to healthcare, hygiene practices, and air pollution - all of which could impact perinatal outcomes and might affect pregnant women differently in different regions of the world. In the international Perinatal Outcomes in the Pandemic (iPOP) Study, we will seize the unique opportunity offered by the COVID-19 pandemic to answer urgent questions about perinatal health. In the first two study phases, we will use population-based aggregate data and standardized outcome definitions to: 1) Determine rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth and describe changes during lockdowns; and assess if these changes are consistent globally, or differ by region and income setting, 2) Determine if the magnitude of changes in adverse perinatal outcomes during lockdown are modified by regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates, lockdown stringency, adherence to lockdown measures, air quality, or other social and economic markers, obtained from publicly available datasets. We will undertake an interrupted time series analysis covering births from January 2015 through July 2020. The iPOP Study will involve at least 121 researchers in 37 countries, including obstetricians, neonatologists, epidemiologists, public health researchers, environmental scientists, and policymakers. We will leverage the most disruptive and widespread “natural experiment” of our lifetime to make rapid discoveries about preterm birth. Whether the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening or unexpectedly improving perinatal outcomes, our research will provide critical new information to shape prenatal care strategies throughout (and well beyond) the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensby, Anne; Mogensen, Oliver Bendix Gammeljord; Svejvig, Per;
    Publisher: Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark

    The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions. The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nyuk Ling Ma; Wanxi Peng; Chin Fhong Soon; Muhamad Fairus Noor Hassim; Suzana Misbah; Zaidah Rahmat; Wilson Thau Lym Yong; Christian Sonne;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The recently emerged coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been characterised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), is impacting all parts of human society including agriculture, manufacturing, and tertiary sectors involving all service provision industries. This paper aims to give an overview of potential host reservoirs that could cause pandemic outbreak caused by zoonotic transmission. Amongst all, continues surveillance in slaughterhouse for possible pathogens transmission is needed to prevent next pandemic outbreak. This paper also summary the potential threats of pandemic to agriculture and aquaculture sector that control almost the total food supply chain and market. The history lesson from the past, emerging and reemerging infectious disease including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012 and the recent COVID-19 should give us some clue to improve especially the governance to be more ready for next coming pandemic. Highlights • Urbanization promotes the occurrence of zoonotic diseases transmission. • The outbreak of COVID19 affected the global food supply chain. • In preparedness to prevent pandemic outbreak, the continues surveillance of food safety is obligated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pernille Kølbæk; Bettina Nørremark; Søren Dinesen Østergaard;