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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
72 Research products, page 1 of 8

  • COVID-19
  • 2018-2022
  • GB
  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pejman Abedifar; Kais Bouslah; Christopher Neumann; Amine Tarazi;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper examines whether environmental and social (ES) activities affect the resiliency of firms during the COVID-19 crisis. We study a sample of 330 firms operating in five developed countries: Canada, France, Japan, the UK and the US. Our analysis shows that US firms with a high ES ranking experienced a significantly lower stock price range volatility during the Covid stock market rundown of February-March 2020. Such findings also hold for Japanese firms but only later on after the introduction of government support. In terms of returns, compared to their peers with a low ES ranking, Japanese and UK stock prices with a high ES ranking suffered more during and after the market rundown. For other countries, we do not find significant differences in stock price behavior based on ES ratings. Our findings suggest that engaging with ES activities is not associated with a better or worse performance during crisis times, which has important implications for investors and managers. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sushil Gupta; Martin K. Starr; Reza Zanjirani Farahani; Nasrin Asgari;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    International audience; We reviewed research papers related to pandemics/epidemics (disease outbreaks of a global/regional scope) published in major operations management, operations research, and management science journals through the end of 2019. We evaluate and categorize these papers. We study research trends, explore research gaps, and provide directions for more efficient and effective research in the future. In addition, our recommendations include the lessons learned from the ongoing pandemic, COVID-19. We discuss papers in the following categories: (a) warning signals/surveillance, (b) disease propagation leading to pandemic conditions, (c) mitigation, (d) vaccines and therapeutics development, (e) resource management, (f) supply chain configuration, (g) decision support systems for managing pandemics/epidemics, and (h) risk assessment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juliette Salles; Antoine Yrondi; Fouad Marhar; Nicolas Andant; Raimundo Avilés Dorlhiac; Binh Quach; Jiao Jiao; Samuel Antunes; Ukadike Chris Ugbolue; Julien Guegan; +65 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Norway

    International audience; Introduction: COVID-19 lockdown measures have been sources of both potential stress and possible psychological and addiction complications. A lack of activity and isolation during lockdown are among the factors thought to be behind the growth in the use of psychoactive substances and worsening addictive behaviors. Previous studies on the pandemic have attested to an increase in alcohol consumption during lockdowns. Likewise, data suggest there has also been a rise in the use of cannabis, although it is unclear how this is affected by external factors. Our study used quantitative data collected from an international population to evaluate changes in cannabis consumption during the lockdown period between March and October, 2020. We also compared users and non-users of the drug in relation to: (1) socio-demographic differences, (2) emotional experiences, and (3) the information available and the degree of approval of lockdown measures. Methods: An online self-report questionnaire concerning the lockdown was widely disseminated around the globe. Data was collected on sociodemographics and how the rules imposed had influenced the use of cannabis and concerns about health, the economic impact of the measures and the approach taken by government(s). Results: One hundred eighty two respondents consumed cannabis before the lockdown vs. 199 thereafter. The mean cannabis consumption fell from 13 joints per week pre-lockdown to 9.75 after it (p < 0.001). Forty-nine respondents stopped using cannabis at all and 66 admitted to starting to do so. The cannabis users were: less satisfied with government measures; less worried about their health; more concerned about the impact of COVID-19 on the economy and their career; and more frightened of becoming infected in public areas. The risk factors for cannabis use were: age (OR = 0.96); concern for physical health (OR = 0.98); tobacco (OR = 1.1) and alcohol consumption during lockdown (OR = 1.1); the pre-lockdown anger level (OR = 1.01); and feelings of boredom during the restrictions (OR = 1.1). Conclusion: In a specific sub-population, the COVID-19 lockdown brought about either an end to the consumption of cannabis or new use of the drug. The main risk factors for cannabis use were: a lower age, co-addictions and high levels of emotions. Methods: An online self-report questionnaire concerning the lockdown was widely disseminated around the globe. Data was collected on sociodemographics and how the rules imposed had influenced the use of cannabis and concerns about health, the economic impact of the measures and the approach taken by government(s).Results: One hundred eighty two respondents consumed cannabis before the lockdown vs. 199 thereafter. The mean cannabis consumption fell from 13 joints per week pre-lockdown to 9.75 after it (p < 0.001). Forty-nine respondents stopped using cannabis at all and 66 admitted to starting to do so. The cannabis users were: less satisfied with government measures; less worried about their health; more concerned about the impact of COVID-19 on the economy and their career; and more frightened of becoming infected in public areas. The risk factors for cannabis use were: age (OR = 0.96); concern for physical health (OR = 0.98); tobacco (OR = 1.1) and alcohol consumption during lockdown (OR = 1.1); the pre-lockdown anger level (OR = 1.01); and feelings of boredom during the restrictions (OR = 1.1).Conclusion: In a specific sub-population, the COVID-19 lockdown brought about either an end to the consumption of cannabis or new use of the drug. The main risk factors for cannabis use were: a lower age, co-addictions and high levels of emotions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    VELARDO, Fanny; WATSON, Verity; ARWIDSON, Pierre; ALLA, Francois; LUCHINI, Stephane; SCHWARZINGER, Michael; COVAMAX STUDY, Group;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    0.0001). In participants without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was substantial, including 41.3% (95% CI, 39.8–42.8) outright refusal of COVID-19 vaccination. Taking into account five characteristics of the first approved vaccines (efficacy, duration of immunity, safety, country of the vaccine manufacturer, and place of administration) as well as the initial setting of the mass vaccination campaign in France, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance would reach 43.6% (95% CI, 43.0–44.1) at best among working-age adults without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was primarily driven by vaccine characteristics, sociodemographic and attitudinal factors. Considering the region of residency as a proxy of the likelihood of getting infected, our study findings do not support the assumption that SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. It can be assumed that higher SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination intentions, although evidence is scarce. In this large and representative survey of 6007 adults aged 18–64 years and residing in France, 8.1% (95% CI, 7.5–8.8) reported a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in December 2020, with regional variations according to an East–West gradient (p <

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam F. Abdin; Yi-Ping Fang; Aakil M. Caunhye; Douglas Alem; Anne Barros; Enrico Zio;
    Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
    Country: France

    The global health crisis caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted the importance of efficient disease detection and control strategies for minimizing the number of infections and deaths in the population and halting the spread of the pandemic. Countries have shown different preparedness levels for promptly implementing disease detection strategies, via mass testing and isolation of identified cases, which led to a largely varying impact of the outbreak on the populations and health-care systems. In this paper, we propose a new pandemic resource allocation model for allocating limited disease detection and control resources, in particular testing capacities, in order to limit the spread of a pandemic. The proposed model is a novel epidemiological compartmental model formulated as a non-linear programming model that is suitable to address the inherent non-linearity of an infectious disease progression within the population. A number of novel features are implemented in the model to take into account important disease characteristics, such as asymptomatic infection and the distinct risk levels of infection within different segments of the population. Moreover, a method is proposed to estimate the vulnerability level of the different communities impacted by the pandemic and to explicitly consider equity in the resource allocation problem. The model is validated against real data for a case study of COVID-19 outbreak in France and our results provide various insights on the optimal testing intervention time and level, and the impact of the optimal allocation of testing resources on the spread of the disease among regions. The results confirm the significance of the proposed modeling framework for informing policymakers on the best preparedness strategies against future infectious disease outbreaks.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aditya Goenka; Lin Liu; Manh-Hung Nguyen;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: ANR | CHESS (ANR-17-EURE-0010), ANR | CHESS (ANR-17-EURE-0010)

    National audience; Preliminary evidence indicates that pollution increases the severity and likelihood of COVID-19 infections similar to many other infectious diseases. This paper models the inter-action of pollution and disease preventive actions, either pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions, on transmission of infectious diseases in a neoclassical growth framework. There are two externalities – households do not take into account how their actions affect disease transmission, and productive activity results in pollution which increases the likelihood of in-fections. The disease dynamics are modeled to be of SIS type. We study the difference in health and economic outcomes between the decentralized economy, where households do not internalize externalities, and socially optimal outcomes, and characterize the taxes and subsi-dies that decentralize the latter. Thus, we examine the question whether there are sufficient incentives to reduce pollution, at both private and public levels, once its effects on disease transmission is considered. In competitive outcomes, pollution increases with increased pro-ductivity. The socially efficient outcome has higher pollution than a competitive outcome, despite increase in abatement, as the effect of higher productivity and larger labor supply dom-inates. The results question the hopes of a Green Recovery.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jeremy Aroles; Wendelin Küpers;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom

    International audience; Digitalisation offers a wide array of opportunities, but also challenges, for universities and business schools alike, regarding the provision and delivery of their teaching and learning activities. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted some of these challenges, as it forced educational institutions to move their pedagogic activities online in line with new governmental regulations. In this article, we identify and discuss critically the following three interconnected challenges: (1) shifting from direct embodied co-presence to technologically mediated telepresence, (2) re-embodying teaching and learning activities and (3) rethinking the purpose and relevance of teachings in business schools. We explore these challenges through a phenomenological lens, informed by the Heideggerian concepts of enframing ( Gestell) and releasement ( Gelassenheit), with a focus on (re-)embodiment. Finally, we discuss the need, for teachers and learners, to be able to reflectively move between embodied and digital(ised) forms of learning and teaching and outline some implications and perspectives regarding the development of an integral pedagogy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jad Adrian Washif; Abdulaziz Farooq; Isabel Krug; David B. Pyne; Evert Verhagen; Lee Taylor; Del P. Wong; Iñigo Mujika; Cristina Cortis; Monoem Haddad; +100 more
    Publisher: Adis International
    Countries: Finland, Italy, United Kingdom, Australia, Croatia, Netherlands, Netherlands, Croatia, Australia, Netherlands ...

    Abstract Objective Our objective was to explore the training-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices of athletes and the influence of lockdowns in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods Athletes (n = 12,526, comprising 13% world class, 21% international, 36% national, 24% state, and 6% recreational) completed an online survey that was available from 17 May to 5 July 2020 and explored their training behaviors (training knowledge, beliefs/attitudes, and practices), including specific questions on their training intensity, frequency, and session duration before and during lockdown (March–June 2020). Results Overall, 85% of athletes wanted to “maintain training,” and 79% disagreed with the statement that it is “okay to not train during lockdown,” with a greater prevalence for both in higher-level athletes. In total, 60% of athletes considered “coaching by correspondence (remote coaching)” to be sufficient (highest amongst world-class athletes). During lockdown, < 40% were able to maintain sport-specific training (e.g., long endurance [39%], interval training [35%], weightlifting [33%], plyometric exercise [30%]) at pre-lockdown levels (higher among world-class, international, and national athletes), with most (83%) training for “general fitness and health maintenance” during lockdown. Athletes trained alone (80%) and focused on bodyweight (65%) and cardiovascular (59%) exercise/training during lockdown. Compared with before lockdown, most athletes reported reduced training frequency (from between five and seven sessions per week to four or fewer), shorter training sessions (from ≥ 60 to < 60 min), and lower sport-specific intensity (~ 38% reduction), irrespective of athlete classification. Conclusions COVID-19-related lockdowns saw marked reductions in athletic training specificity, intensity, frequency, and duration, with notable within-sample differences (by athlete classification). Higher classification athletes had the strongest desire to “maintain” training and the greatest opposition to “not training” during lockdowns. These higher classification athletes retained training specificity to a greater degree than others, probably because of preferential access to limited training resources. More higher classification athletes considered “coaching by correspondence” as sufficient than did lower classification athletes. These lockdown-mediated changes in training were not conducive to maintenance or progression of athletes’ physical capacities and were also likely detrimental to athletes’ mental health. These data can be used by policy makers, athletes, and their multidisciplinary teams to modulate their practice, with a degree of individualization, in the current and continued pandemic-related scenario. Furthermore, the data may drive training-related educational resources for athletes and their multidisciplinary teams. Such upskilling would provide athletes with evidence to inform their training modifications in response to germane situations (e.g., COVID related, injury, and illness).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sébastien Couarraze; Louis Delamarre; Fouad Marhar; Binh Quach; Jiao Jiao; Raimundo Avilés Dorlhiac; Foued Saadaoui; Andy Su-I Liu; Benoït Dubuis; Samuel Antunes; +7 more
    Publisher: PlosOne
    Countries: Portugal, France, Portugal

    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has initiated an upheaval in society and has been the cause of considerable stress during this period. Healthcare professionals have been on the front line during this health crisis, particularly paramedical staff. The aim of this study was to assess the high level of stress of healthcare workers during the first wave of the pandemic. Materials and methods The COVISTRESS international study is a questionnaire disseminated online collecting demographic and stress-related data over the globe, during the pandemic. Stress levels were evaluated using non-calibrated visual analog scale, from 0 (no stress) to 100 (maximal stress). Results Among the 13,537 individuals from 44 countries who completed the survey from January to June 2020, we included 10,051 workers (including 1379 healthcare workers, 631 medical doctors and 748 paramedical staff). The stress levels during the first wave of the pandemic were 57.8 ± 33 in the whole cohort, 65.3 ± 29.1 in medical doctors, and 73.6 ± 27.7 in paramedical staff. Healthcare professionals and especially paramedical staff had the highest levels of stress (p < 0.001 vs non-healthcare workers). Across all occupational categories, women had systematically significantly higher levels of work-related stress than men (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between age and stress level (r = -0.098, p < 0.001). Healthcare professionals demonstrated an increased risk of very-high stress levels (>80) compared to other workers (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.87–2.41). Paramedical staff risk for very-high levels of stress was higher than doctors’ (1.88, 1.50–2.34). The risk of high levels of stress also increased in women (1.83, 1.61–2.09; p < 0.001 vs. men) and in people aged <50 (1.45, 1.26–1.66; p < 0.001 vs. aged >50). Conclusions The first wave of the pandemic was a major stressful event for healthcare workers, especially paramedical staff. Among individuals, women were the most at risk while age was a protective factor.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dara Hallinan; Alexander Bernier; Anne Cambon-Thomsen; Francis P. Crawley; Diana Dimitrova; Claudia Bauzer Medeiros; Gustav Nilsonne; Simon Parker; Brian Pickering; Stephanie Rennes;
    Publisher: Basingstoke : Stockton Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractOn 16 July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued their decision in the Schrems II case concerning Facebook’s transfers of personal data from the EU to the US. The decision may have significant effects on the legitimate transfer of personal data for health research purposes from the EU. This article aims: (i) to outline the consequences of the Schrems II decision for the sharing of personal data for health research between the EU and third countries, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; and, (ii) to consider certain options available to address the consequences of the decision and to facilitate international data exchange for health research moving forward.