This paper examines whether environmental and social (ES) activities affect the resiliency of firms during the COVID-19 crisis. We study a sample of 330 firms operating in five developed countries: Canada, France, Japan, the UK and the US. Our analysis shows that US firms with a high ES ranking experienced a significantly lower stock price range volatility during the Covid stock market rundown of February-March 2020. Such findings also hold for Japanese firms but only later on after the introduction of government support. In terms of returns, compared to their peers with a low ES ranking, Japanese and UK stock prices with a high ES ranking suffered more during and after the market rundown. For other countries, we do not find significant differences in stock price behavior based on ES ratings. Our findings suggest that engaging with ES activities is not associated with a better or worse performance during crisis times, which has important implications for investors and managers. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed
International audience; This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n=344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), non-directed bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer’s cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.
Birgit H M Meldal; Livia Perfetto; Colin W. Combe; Tiago Lubiana; João Vitor Ferreira Cavalcante; Hema Bye-A-Jee; Andra Waagmeester; Noemi del-Toro; Anjali Shrivastava; Elisabeth Barrera; +9 more
Birgit H M Meldal; Livia Perfetto; Colin W. Combe; Tiago Lubiana; João Vitor Ferreira Cavalcante; Hema Bye-A-Jee; Andra Waagmeester; Noemi del-Toro; Anjali Shrivastava; Elisabeth Barrera; Edith D. Wong; Bernhard Mlecnik; Gabriela Bindea; Kalpana Panneerselvam; Egon Willighagen; Juri Rappsilber; Pablo Porras; Henning Hermjakob; Sandra Orchard;
Countries: Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, France
Abstract The Complex Portal (www.ebi.ac.uk/complexportal) is a manually curated, encyclopaedic database of macromolecular complexes with known function from a range of model organisms. It summarizes complex composition, topology and function along with links to a large range of domain-specific resources (i.e. wwPDB, EMDB and Reactome). Since the last update in 2019, we have produced a first draft complexome for Escherichia coli, maintained and updated that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, added over 40 coronavirus complexes and increased the human complexome to over 1100 complexes that include approximately 200 complexes that act as targets for viral proteins or are part of the immune system. The display of protein features in ComplexViewer has been improved and the participant table is now colour-coordinated with the nodes in ComplexViewer. Community collaboration has expanded, for example by contributing to an analysis of putative transcription cofactors and providing data accessible to semantic web tools through Wikidata which is now populated with manually curated Complex Portal content through a new bot. Our data license is now CC0 to encourage data reuse. Users are encouraged to get in touch, provide us with feedback and send curation requests through the ‘Support’ link.
Background: Senegal reported the first COVID-19 case on March 2, 2020. A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted to capture the true extent of COVID-19 exposure. Methods: Multi-stage random cluster sampling of households was carried out between October 24 and November 26, 2020, at the end of the first wave of COVID-19 transmission. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) were screened using three distinct ELISA assays. Adjusted prevalence for the survey design were calculated for each test separately, and thereafter combined. Crude, adjusted prevalence based on tests performances and weighted prevalence by sex-age strata were estimated to assess the seroprevalence. Findings: Of the 1,463 participants included in this study, 58·8% were women and the mean age of participants was 29·2 years (range 0·25–82·0). The national seroprevalence was estimated at 28 . 4% (95% CI: 26·1-30·8). There was substantial regional variability. Four regions recorded the highest seroprevalence: Ziguinchor (56·7%), Sedhiou (48·0%), Dakar (44·0%) and Kaolack (32·7%) whereas, Louga (11·1%) and Matam (11·2%), located in the Center-North, were less impacted in our analysis. All age groups were impacted and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. We estimated 4,744,392 SARS-CoV-2 (95% CI: 4,360,164 – 5,145,327) potential infected in Senegal compared to 16,089 COVID-19 RT-PCR laboratory-confirmed cases reported at the time of the survey. Interpretation: These results provide an estimate of SARS-CoV-2 virus dissemination in the Senegalese population. Preventive and control measures need to be reinforced in the country and especially in the south border regions. Funding Information: This work was supported by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Senegalese Ministry of Health, the Senegalese National Statistics and Demography Agency (ANSD), the WHO Unity program and the COVID-19 Task-force of the International Pasteur Institute Network (IPIN, REPAIR project). Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: All participants have consented to participate in the study. For people younger than 18 years, a legal representative provided informed consent. The study was approved by the Senegalese National Ethics Committee for Research in Health (reference number N°0176/MSAS/DPRS/CNERS, 10 October 2020).
International audience; This paper examines and compares financial market reaction and recovery of four broad classes of financial assets – equity indexes, precious metals, 10-year benchmark bonds and cryptocurrencies, to the COVID-19 pandemic. The data set comprises daily observations of close prices in the selected markets from 17-04-2018 to 20-06-2021. Using the Yang and Zhao (2020) and Koenker and Xiao (2004) quantile unit-root tests for return persistence, we find heterogeneity in reactions and recovery patterns not only across asset classes, but also within them. Specifically, we find strong potential for mean reversion in equity markets even at high levels of shocks. While gold offers limited mean reversion, platinum shows very strong resistance to the COVID. Government bonds show small declines in value to the COVID in addition to high persistence. Cryptocurrencies, as a group, turn out to be the riskiest in the long-term, with more than a 50% decline in value coupled with high degrees of persistence. Our results raise questions as to the safe haven characteristics of the newly-popular Bitcoin. Our findings are useful for policy makers and investors through a better understanding of differences in the potential for mean reversion provided by different asset classes.
International audience; We reviewed research papers related to pandemics/epidemics (disease outbreaks of a global/regional scope) published in major operations management, operations research, and management science journals through the end of 2019. We evaluate and categorize these papers. We study research trends, explore research gaps, and provide directions for more efficient and effective research in the future. In addition, our recommendations include the lessons learned from the ongoing pandemic, COVID-19. We discuss papers in the following categories: (a) warning signals/surveillance, (b) disease propagation leading to pandemic conditions, (c) mitigation, (d) vaccines and therapeutics development, (e) resource management, (f) supply chain configuration, (g) decision support systems for managing pandemics/epidemics, and (h) risk assessment.
Countries: United Kingdom, France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
International audience; Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, discussions on social media and blogs have indicated that women have experienced menstrual changes, including altered menstrual duration, frequency, regularity, and volume (heavier bleeding and clotting), increased dysmenorrhea, and worsened premenstrual syndrome. There have been a small number of scientific studies of variable quality reporting on menstrual cycle features during the pandemic, but it is still unclear whether apparent changes are due to COVID-19 infection/illness itself, or other pandemic-related factors like increased psychological stress and changes in health behaviours. It is also unclear to what degree current findings are explained by reporting bias, recall bias, selection bias and confounding factors. Further research is urgently needed. We provide a list of outstanding research questions and potential approaches to address them. Findings can inform policies to mitigate against gender inequalities in health and society, allowing us to build back better post-COVID.
Publisher: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
Background Many countries implemented national lockdowns to contain the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and avoid overburdening healthcare capacity. Aim We aimed to quantify how the French lockdown impacted population mixing, contact patterns and behaviours. Methods We conducted an online survey using convenience sampling and collected information from participants aged 18 years and older between 10 April and 28 April 2020. Result Among the 42,036 survey participants, 72% normally worked outside their home, and of these, 68% changed to telework during lockdown and 17% reported being unemployed during lockdown. A decrease in public transport use was reported from 37% to 2%. Participants reported increased frequency of hand washing and changes in greeting behaviour. Wearing masks in public was generally limited. A total of 138,934 contacts were reported, with an average of 3.3 contacts per individual per day; 1.7 in the participants aged 65 years and older compared with 3.6 for younger age groups. This represented a 70% reduction compared with previous surveys, consistent with SARS-CoV2 transmission reduction measured during the lockdown. For those who maintained a professional activity outside home, the frequency of contacts at work dropped by 79%. Conclusion The lockdown affected the population's behaviour, work, risk perception and contact patterns. The frequency and heterogeneity of contacts, both of which are critical factors in determining how viruses spread, were affected. Such surveys are essential to evaluate the impact of lockdowns more accurately and anticipate epidemic dynamics in these conditions.
As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, we explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system. Priority should be given to pre- and primary schools allowing younger children to resume learning and development, whereas full attendance in middle and high schools is not recommended for stable or increasing epidemic activity. Large-scale test and trace is required to keep the epidemic under control. Ex-post assessment shows that progressive reopening of schools, limited attendance, and strong adoption of preventive measures contributed to a decreasing epidemic after lifting the first lockdown. The role of children in the spread of COVID-19 is not fully understood, and the circumstances under which schools should be opened are therefore debated. Here, the authors demonstrate protocols by which schools in France can be safely opened without overwhelming the healthcare system.
Countries: France, France, France, France, United Kingdom
The placenta provides a significant physical and physiological barrier to prevent fetal infection during pregnancy. Nevertheless, it is at times breached by pathogens and leads to vertical transmission of infection from mother to fetus. This review will focus specifically on the Zika flavivirus, the HIV retrovirus and the emerging SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, which have affected pregnant women and their offspring in recent epidemics. In particular, we will address how viral infections affect the immune response at the maternal-fetal interface and how the placental barrier is physically breached and discuss the consequences of infection on various aspects of placental function to support fetal growth and development. Improved understanding of how the placenta responds to viral infections will lay the foundation for developing therapeutics to these and emergent viruses, to minimise the harms of infection to the offspring.