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68 Research products, page 1 of 7

  • COVID-19
  • 2012-2021
  • Closed Access
  • DK
  • English

10
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  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Karen Wynter; Bernice Redley; Sara Holton; Elizabeth Manias; Jo McDonall; Lauren McTier; Alison M. Hutchinson; Debra Kerr; Grainne Lowe; Nicole (Nikki) M. Phillips; +1 more
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Objectives To assess depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate nursing and midwifery students during the COVID-19 pandemic, and identify socio-demographic and educational characteristics associated with higher depression, anxiety and stress scores. Methods Cross-sectional study during August–September 2020, using an anonymous, online, self-administered survey. E-mail invitations with a survey link were sent to 2,907 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing suite of courses, offered across four campuses of a single university in Victoria, Australia. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed using the DASS-21. Data on socio-demographic and educational characteristics, self-rated physical health and exposure to COVID-19 were also collected. DASS-21 subscale scores were compared with existing data for various pre-pandemic and COVID-19 samples. Multiple regression was used to investigate factors associated with higher scores on depression, anxiety and stress subscales. Results The response rate was 22% (n=638). Mean scores on all DASS-21 subscales were significantly higher (p<0.001) than means from all comparative sample data. The proportions of students reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were 48.5%, 37.2% and 40.2% respectively. Being a woman, being younger, having completed more years of study and having poorer self-rated general health were all significantly associated (p<0.05) with higher scores on at least one DASS-21 subscale. Conclusions Almost half of participants reported at least moderate symptoms of depression; more than a third reported at least moderate symptoms of anxiety or stress. Poor psychological wellbeing can impact students’ successful completion of their studies and therefore, has implications for nursing and midwifery workforce recruitment and retention. During and after pandemics, universities should consider screening undergraduate students not only for anxiety and stress, but also for depression. Clear, low-cost referral pathways should be available, should screening indicate that further diagnosis or treatment is required.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Bjørsum-Meyer; Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Gunnar Baatrup;
    Country: Denmark

    We read with interest a consensus statement of the ScotCap clinical leads collaboration reported by Macleod et al. on the use of Computer Tomography Colonography (CTC) and Colon Capsule Endoscopy (CCE) as promoted diagnostic modalities in the Covid-19 era and how to deal with diminutive and small polyps with a 'realistic medicine' approach (1). The issues discussed are important, and the suggestions made are essential to improve healthcare provision for patients, doctors, hospitals, and society. The number needed to colonoscope to find one significant neoplastic lesion has increased dramatically in recent years - in Denmark more than 4-fold in 15 years, whereas the number of cancers diagnosed has increased very modestly (20-30% in 15 years). In Europe alone, more than 12m colonoscopies are performed each year. Complications are primarily associated with therapeutic optical colonoscopies (OC); significant complications (bleeding, perforation and polypectomy syndrome) are seen in 0.7% and adding up to over 400.000 cases yearly (2).

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Lars Bo Kaspersen; Liv Egholm;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    We are living in a world which is severely crisis-ridden and faces some major challenges. The fact that we are currently facing a genuine global pandemic (COVID-19) brings about even more uncertainty. The social and political institutions, which emerged and consolidated during the 20th century, and which created stability, have become fragile. The young generation born in the 1990s and onwards have experienced 9/11 and the ‘war against terrorism’, the financial crisis of 2008, changes to climate, environmental degradation, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic. The generation born between 1960 and 1990 have had the same experiences along with severe economic crises in the 1970s and 1980s and the Cold War. Some of these challenges are in different ways intertwined with capitalism and its crises, while others are linked to the rapid development of new technologies, in particular innovations within communication and information technologies. This introduction lists the most important grand challenges facing the world as they have emerged more recently. The five articles following this introduction address some of these challenges, with particular attention to the problems of capitalism and democracy and the relation between these two areas. Most authors agree that climate change and the destruction of the environment are the biggest and most pertinent problems to address, but it is their stance that we can only meet these challenges if democracy is functioning well. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Thesis Eleven is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Youmen Chaaban; Hessa Al-Thani; Xiangyun Du;
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Employing a narrative inquiry, the study explored the way nine teacher educators responded temporally to the emotionally-laden challenges faced during the disruption to education caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on their enactment of professional agency and renegotiation of their identities. Findings revealed seven conflicting themes located within personal, relational, and contextual spaces. Emotional experiences were further found to direct the dynamic forms of agency enacted, and consequently the consolidation or dismissal of renegotiated identities. The study concludes with the need to support teacher educators’ professional agency as a resource for transformative changes and innovations in teacher education.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah Cook; Marianne S. Ulriksen;
    Country: Denmark

    In this article we discuss the findings of contributions to the special issue titled Social policy responses to COVID-19. The articles add to the body of emerging evidence on how the pandemic has exacerbated the situation for some already vulnerable population groups, while also creating new sources of vulnerability affecting different groups. Despite both aggravated and new vulnerabilities, the articles demonstrate how governments have largely responded within the frameworks of their existing systems and institutions. Hence, overall, we do not see major shifts in policy direction. At the same time, some innovative responses or efforts to reach different groups are apparent, and it may just be too early to identify more fundamental shifts. IOs can play a key role in supporting such potential reforms. However, although IOs called for global solidarity at the start of the pandemic, many countries have ‘gone in on themselves’ and governments have largely strengthened the national focus of their policies. The potential for IOs to provide strong leadership in the long-term is still conceivable. The crisis is global and with all the different measures countries have put in place, there is a wealth of experience that could be collected and shared and IOs are well placed to do this. Responding to the pandemic will continue to require a global social policy perspective.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jessica L Dawson; Scott R. Clark; Lisa R Wilton; Kim Y Chiew; Nicholas Procter; J. Simon Bell;
    Publisher: UK : Sage Publications
    Country: Australia
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mellupe, Renata;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet
    Country: Denmark

    Forskning i, hvordan stressfaktorer i forbindelse med udfordringer og hindringer påvirker performance, er vokset stærkt frem i litteraturen om organisatorisk stress. Vores forståelse af de mekanismer, som kan forklare disse effekter, er dog stadig begrænset. Denne artikelbaserede afhandling, som tager afsæt i udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen og transaktionsteori omkring stress, behandler i tre forskningsartikler spørgsmålet om, hvordan stressfaktorer påvirker performance ved at undersøge underliggende kognitive mekanismer og faktorer, som er relateret til disse effekter. Den første artikel har fokus på, hvordan udfordrings- og hindringsvurdering bidrager til vores forståelse af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance. Artiklen præsenterer en oversigt over empiriske resultater, og stiller de studier, som måler vurderinger og de studier, der ikke tager vurderinger med i betragtning op overfor hinanden. Den konkluderer, at måling af vurderinger giver et mere detaljeret billede af sammenhængene mellem stressfaktorer og performancerelaterede resultater. Den anden artikel beskriver et præregistreret eksperimentelt studie, som har undersøgt virkningen af stressfaktorens styrke (opgavesværhedsgrad) på udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og performance af en krævende kognitiv opgave. Studiet fandt en ikke-lineære effekt af opgavesværhedsgrad på udfordringsvurderinger, mens effekten på hindringsvurderinger var lineær. Samtidig bekræfter det hindringsvurderingens medierende rolle i sammenhængen mellem opgavesværhedsgrad og performance. Den tredje artikel beskriver to studier. Studie 1 er et præregistreret eksperiment, som udforsker, hvilken rolle tidligere erfaringer og feedback spiller i det dynamiske stressforløb. Artiklen fokuserer især på, hvordan opgaveperformance, vist som en sideløbende performance feedback (dvs. simultan præsentation af opadgående social sammenligning og objektiv feedback) medierer ændringer i udfordrings- og hindringsvurderinger. Studie 1 underbygger delvist dets hypoteser om indirekte effekter. Studie 2 bygger på Studie 1 og anvender derudover eye-tracking til at undersøge sammenhængene mellem udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og opmærksomhed på de to nævnte aspekter af sideløbende feedback for at kaste lys på hvilke opmærksomhedsprocesser, der ligger bag de effekter, der blev fundet i Studie 1. Studie 2 er i øjeblikket i gang med dataindsamling og er ikke afsluttet på grund af COVID-19-inducerede restriktioner på laboratoriet. Denne afhandlings overordnede resultater anbefaler en gentænkning af den nuværende forståelsesramme for udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen ved at åbne for en mere kompleks konceptualisering af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance i organisationer. Research on the effects of challenge and hindrance stressors on performance is burgeoning in organizational stress literature. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms explaining these effects is still limited. Grounded in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework and the transactional theory of stress, this article-based dissertation addresses the question of how stressors produce their effects on performance by investigating the underlying cognitive mechanisms and factors associated with these effects in three research papers. Specifically, to understand how challenge and hindrance appraisals contribute to our understanding of the stressor-performance link, the first paper presents a review of the empirical findings that contrasts the studies that measure appraisals with those that do not consider appraisals. It finds that measurement of appraisals offers more refined picture of the relationships between the stressors and performance-related outcomes. The second paper conducts a pre-registered experimental study to investigate the effects of the magnitude of a stressor (task difficulty) on challenge and hindrance appraisals and performance in a demanding cognitive task. It finds the non-linear effects of task difficulty on challenge appraisals, while the effects on hindrance appraisals were linear. In addition, it provides support for the mediating role of the hindrance appraisals in the task difficulty-performance relationships. The third paper consists of two studies. Study 1 carries out a pre-registered experiment to explore the role of prior experience and feedback in the dynamic stress process. Specifically, it examines how task performance, provided as in-task concurrent feedback, i.e., simultaneous presentation of upward social comparison and objective feedback, mediates change in challenge and hindrance appraisals. Study 1 finds partial support for the hypothesized effects. Study 2 examines the underlying effects found in Study 1 and employs eye-tracking to explore the associations between challenge and hindrance appraisals and attentional focus on the two elements of the in-task concurrent feedback to shed light on attentional processes. Study 2 is currently in the process of data collection and is not completed due to COVID-19 induced restrictions on the laboratory. The overall results of this dissertation encourage rethinking the existing state of the challenge-hindrance stressor framework by inviting a more complex conceptualization of the stressor-performance association in organizations.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Grønbæk, Kaj; Alstrup, Stephen; Riis, Søren; Andersen, Ole Kæseler; Toft Frederiksen, Poul; Brinckmann, Randi;
    Country: Denmark

    Teknologi og digitalisering har vist sig som helt afgørende våben mod covid-19. Danmark har stået stærkt, men der er også områder, som vi kan blive bedre på.Kronikken er i tilpasset udgave bragt i Politiken d. 24. november 2021.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Karen Wistoft; Aske Clark; Lars Qvortrup;

    COVID-19 disrupted almost all pedagogical activities in Danish kindergartens. Basic principles were challenged because of new demands for hygiene and social and physical distance. More activities were moved outdoors, group sizes were minimized, parents had to stay outside the grounds and kindergarten teachers had to deal with a lot of insecurity. However, after a challenging period, new potentials emerged, and new, promising pedagogical principles were identified. In this article, we present examples of COVID-19 disruption in Danish kindergartens, children aged 2-5It is a mixed methods study using survey data as background material for qualitative field observations and interviews. The research question is: What characterizes the learning environments and pedagogical approaches in kindergartens, and how are they redefined over time in response to the two-phase disruption during COVID-19? The article provides four answers concerning: rethinking play activities; rethinking food and meals; rethinking handover and parent relations; and handling insecurity. In addition, two short sections deal with the consequences for management and the kindergarten teachers’ professional identity.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Payam Ghaebi Panah; Josep M. Guerrero;
    Publisher: IEEE Signal Processing Society
    Country: Denmark

    Quick escalation of the Coronavirus crisis from epidemic to pandemic was unprecedented. A relatively longer asymptomatic period is a key feature of COVID-19 in rapid expansion. This paper suggests a search strategy inspired by the pandemic model of airborne disease transmission. The algorithm is based on straightforward principles globally experienced through the COVID-19 pandemic. Asymptomatic period, social distance, and reproduction numbers are fundaments of the Pandemic Search Algorithm (PSA). The performance assessment results compared to the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Population Swarm optimization (PSO) indicate that PSA is a cost-effective method to establish a compromise between convergence rate and processing time. It can be privileged in computational problems exploring large feasible spaces due to lighter calculations, simpler structures, easier implementation, and tuning.