International audience; The sixteenth issue of Arabian Humanities concludes our special focus on Omani history and society. Our journal is proud to have gathered, over two issues, an impressive and diverse set of authors thanks to the fabulous commitment of three researchers: Marion Breteau, Sterenn Le Maguer and Maho Sebiane who have for long been partners of the Centre français de recherche de la Péninsule Arabique (CEFREPA). While the project had been launched before the Covid-19 pandemic and the end of the five-decade long reign of Sultan Qaboos, it is clear that many of the contributions have been impacted by these two historic events, if only through access to the field in Oman or by providing chronological milestones.In the Sultanate like elsewhere in the Arabian Peninsula, issues linked to travel have become an important matter for foreign researchers. The closure of airports due to the pandemic, the health procedures (however legitimate), and even certain specific costs have complicated our collective capacity to have access to the societies that we study. They have limited the possibility to carry out excavations for archaeologists, discover new archives or even interact, more or less formally, with colleagues who work in universities or academic institutions of the Arabian Peninsula and participate in scientific conferences.In that context, the CEFREPA’s very existence is more than ever an asset. As a French research center which has always valued its permanent presence in the Arabian Peninsula for more than four decades (first in Yemen, then in Saudi Arabia and finally in Kuwait, and has been able to establish partnerships to send researchers for long periods of time in the United Arab Emirates and in Oman), it remains a most relevant tool to reinforce local partnerships and establish fruitful observation posts. It is largely through mutual trust and patience, long standing relationships and collaborations with institutions and actors of the societies we work on, and most importantly we work with, that fieldwork makes full sense. The publications of this issue, focusing on Oman or other areas, are yet another testimony of a philosophy and methodology that despite various crises and difficulties, continues to structure our journal.
The present document defines properties and usage of IoT and M2M technology in Contact Tracing.It introduces the method of Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT). ACT registers the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus on IoT connected objects (waste water, or air conditioning filters, or dirty objects, or dirty cleaning tools, etc.) or connected locations (such as a shops, restaurants, corridors in a supermarket, sanitary facilities in a shopping mall, railway stations, airports terminals and gates, etc.) using Group Test (sometime called in the literature Pooling Test).ACT identifies contacts with IoT connected objects that have been contaminated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and works in synergy with solutions designed for manual and digital contact tracing to identify and alert people who may have been infected by the virus. In case the object is suspected to host or have hosted the SARS-CoV-2 virus, ACT allows users that have been in contact with the object or visited the connected location to be informed.This shifts the paradigm from synchronously tracing the contacts of the people infected by COVID-19 to asynchronously tracing of contacts of materials (such as infected surfaces, waste-water, air-conditioning filters, etc.) that are hosting the SARS-CoV-2 virus.This enables people who have come into contact asynchronously with those particular materials to be alerted of a potential COVID-19 contagion, and, at the same time, it signals that one or more persons have been in contact with the material which is now spreading the SARS-CoV-2 virus.; Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT) traces the IoT connected object that may have been infected by the Covid-19 virus (or future pandemic viruses). This shifts the paradigm, from searching for a person in the process of infecting another to the tracing of both potential contamination and infections, and leveraging on the combination of the two information.The scope of this WI is to standardize the full support of Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT) by means of1) providing some examples of use and deployment of ACT by means of a few explanatory use cases.2) specifying the ACT method and its interaction with deployed contact tracing applications for human and systems. This includes the interaction with the different technologies used by non ACT contact tracing solutions.3) specifying the ACT system including application protocols and API.The new ACT method will require the use of existing ready-to-market IoT-based technology and well-established wireless network techniques, in particular the ones specified in the ETSI standards ecosystem. Moreover, it will preserve the user's privacy in accordance with GDPR and/or other regional requirements not requiring the transmission of any personal information by the user.
Contribution à un site web; During the successive lockdowns caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, 80% of students around the world had to continue their courses online. However, videoconferencing while managing a continuous flow of emails can be exhausting and remote working can be difficult to cope with. A group of researchers, mainly from the Innovation, Technology, Economics & Management Laboratory (LITEM – Univ. Paris-Saclay, Univ. d’Évry, IMT-BS), followed a group of students at Université Paris-Saclay during the first lockdown in Spring 2020. Although some students managed to make the change well, many talked of ‘zoom burnout’ and of no longer being able to face being in front of their screens all day. In fact, whether an individual makes a successful transition to remote learning depends on an element which is often ignored - namely the ability to keep an open mind. [...]
The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated the shift to contactless transactions and the “cashless society” model is fueling market innovations, not to mention social discord and the introduction of a “right of access to cash.”; The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated the shift to contactless transactions and the “cashless society” model is fueling market innovations, not to mention social discord and the introduction of a “right of access to cash.”
The Second ENCORE European conference in October 2021 in Paris, France, has gathered two communities, the Risk Perception and Behaviour Survey of Surveyors (Risk-SoS) and the H2020-DRS01 Cluster on risk perception and adaptive behaviour (a grouping of several Horizon Europe – Disaster Resilient Societies projects, most notably RESILOC, BUILDERS, ENGAGE, LINKS, CORE and Risk PACC). During the Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns in 2020 and 2021 the monthly Risk-SoS webinars have been keeping the risk perception and adaptive behaviour research community together with panels on the role of theories in research on hazards adaptation, resilience and vulnerability. Topics were on risk perception and behaviour across challenges and time, across disciplines and methods, as well as panel and longitudinal approaches, and workshops on theories and methods to advance the design of a collective surveying approach with potentially common questions and answers’ scales to foster comparability. The Risk-SoS webinars have also been discussing the results of the Survey of Surveyors and sustaining the collective effort to build a harmonised approach for risk perception and adaptive behaviour assessment. In an hybrid format, the Second ENCORE conference has gathered 25 researchers and experts from 10 countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) at the Ministry of Research in Paris, France.
IPP PolicyBriefs n 74; Questions linked to the design and implementation of redistributive tax policies have occupied a growing position on the public agenda over recent years. Moreover, the fiscal pressures brought upon by the current coronavirus crisis will ensure that these issues maintain considerable political significance for years to come. In light of this importance, we present novel research on reforms of income tax systems. Our approach shows that tax reforms wherein the changes in individual tax burdens are larger for taxpayers with higher incomes are of particular interest. We denote such reforms as “monotonic” and show that, under this condition, it is possible to determine the “winners” and “losers” of a given tax reform. One can then conclude whether the monotonic reform is politically feasible, depending on whether a majority of individuals will benefit financially from the policy. An empirical analysis of tax reforms with a focus on the United States and France reveals that past reforms have, by and large, been monotonic. Our approach therefore enables us to test whether a given tax system admits a politically feasible reform and has direct policy relevance for the common types of taxation reforms undertaken by government authorities.
The Conversation; COVID-19 cases have risen exponentially in Southeast Asia in the past few months – at one time deaths were increasing at the fastest pace in the world. With the advance of the Delta variant, the region and its 655 million population have now become a pandemic hotspot due to geographical, political and socioeconomic factors.
A recommendation – based on reviews by Bastien Boussau and one anonymous reviewer – of the article: Bénéteau T, Elie B, Sofonea MT, Alizon S (2021) Estimating dates of origin and end of COVID-19 epidemics. medRxiv, 2021.01.19.21250080, ver. 3 peer-reviewed and recommended by Peer Community in Mathematical and Computational Biology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.19.21250080
On May 21st, 2021, we held the webinar "Covid-19 and AI: unexpected challenges and lessons". This short note presents its highlights.; On May 21st, 2021, we held the webinar "Covid-19 and AI: unexpected challenges and lessons". This short note presents its highlights.