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771 Research products

  • COVID-19
  • 2018-2022
  • Other ORP type
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rosetti, Ilaria; de Waal, Maaike S.; de Groot, Mara; Jinadasa, Uditha;

    Cities are in a constant process of change and are the theater of interaction among people and their complex, historically multi-layered, culturally diverse living environment. Therefore, various interests, needs, and values affect these dynamics of interaction and urban change, which bring challenges and opportunities for the development of cities. Particularly, when urban development deals with such complex living environment and the management and conservation of both listed and non-listed heritage – as in the case of World Heritage cities – a variety of public and private, and global and local stakeholders are affected by processes of change. Inclusive approaches in the negotiation of these changes that involve all these actors is increasingly advocated for a more sustainable urban development. In the past three decades, the emergence of the so-called living heritage approach promotes the empowerment of those communities, groups, and individuals that keep heritage alive in participating in decision- making over the management of urban developments, and heritage management and conservation that affect them. The preservation of their continuous relationship with their heritage is considered key to fostering the mutual benefit of cities, heritage, and society. While research worldwide offers examples of best practices, the implementation of these approaches still faces many barriers and new challenges. This book aims to explore how (World) Heritage Cities are dealing with the preservation of their living heritage, what is needed for its effective management, what approaches are adopted, and what challenges and opportunities are encountered. Results offer an overview of current practices, which also include some of the first testimonies of their evolution in the time of a global pandemic (COVID-19), that can inform future research and urban strategies.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Aasman, Susan; Brügger, Niels; Clavert, Frédéric; de Wild, Karin; +3 Authors

    AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID-19 Crisis) is a project developed by the members of WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) Working Group 2 that focuses on analysing transnational events. This is one of the first research projects using an IIPC collaborative collection and ARCH (Archives Research Compute Hub), a new interface for web archive analysis created by the Archives Unleashed Project Team and the Internet Archive.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PURE Aarhus Universi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PURE Aarhus University
    Other ORP type . 2022
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PURE Aarhus Universi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PURE Aarhus University
      Other ORP type . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Pratama, Nando Reza; Wafa, Ifan Ali; Budi, David Setyo; Sutanto, Henry; +3 Authors

    Vaccine effectiveness (VE) and the urgency of booster vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant need evaluation. A systematic search was conducted from 1-6 April, 2022. VE difference (VED) estimates were assessed using random-effects and meta-regression analyses were performed for evaluating VE over time. Compared to full dose, booster dose of overall vaccines provided better protection against any and severe Omicron infections within 3 months (p < 0.001), and within 3 months or more in any, severe, and symptomatic infections (p < 0.001). From meta-regression analysis of overall vaccines, the full-dose VE against any and symptomatic Omicron infections reduced per month by 2.45% and 5.5%, respectively; whereas booster dose effectiveness against any and symptomatic Omicron infections reduced per month by 1.79% and 1.14%, respectively. The VE estimates of booster dose provide excellent protection against symptomatic infection compared to full dose. The VE estimates of Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and mRNA-1273 against Omicron infection are generally moderate, despite the VE estimates declining over time.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Meijer, Joyce; Siesling, Sabine;

    Joyce Meijer, onderzoeker, IKNL, locatie Enschede, presenteert namens Wouter Wolfkamp en collegae het onderzoek naar de impact van de COVID-19-pandemie op het diagnostisch traject in het ziekenhuis van borstkankerpatiënten. Prof. dr. Sabine Siesling, klinisch epidemioloog bij het IKNL en Universiteit Twente, bespreekt het onderzoek van Anouk Eikelboom en collegae namens IKNL en de Noorse kankerregistratie over de impact van de COVID-19-pandemie op de diagnose en stadium van borstkanker. Ten slotte bespreekt Joyce Meijer het onderzoek van Lotte van Dongen en collegae dat zij presenteerde over de impact van COVID-19 op de follow-up van borstkankerpatiënten in Nederland.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daniel, Michelle; Gottlieb, Michael; Wooten, Darcy; Stojan, Jennifer; +22 Authors

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused graduate medical education (GME) programs to pivot to virtual interviews (VIs) for recruitment and selection. This systematic review synthesizes the rapidly expanding evidence base on VIs, providing insights into preferred formats, strengths, and weaknesses. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, MedEdPublish, and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2012 to 21 February 2022. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, full texts, performed data extraction, and assessed risk of bias using the Medical Education Research Quality Instrument. Findings were reported according to Best Evidence in Medical Education guidance. RESULTS: One hundred ten studies were included. The majority (97%) were from North America. Fourteen were conducted before COVID-19 and 96 during the pandemic. Studies involved both medical students applying to residencies (61%) and residents applying to fellowships (39%). Surgical specialties were more represented than other specialties. Applicants preferred VI days that lasted 4-6 h, with three to five individual interviews (15-20 min each), with virtual tours and opportunities to connect with current faculty and trainees. Satisfaction with VIs was high, though both applicants and programs found VIs inferior to in-person interviews for assessing 'fit.' Confidence in ranking applicants and programs was decreased. Stakeholders universally noted significant cost and time savings with VIs, as well as equity gains and reduced carbon footprint due to eliminating travel. CONCLUSIONS: The use of VIs for GME recruitment and selection has accelerated rapidly. The findings of this review offer early insights that can guide future practice, policy, and research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Nardelli, P.; Scandroglio, A.M.; De Piero, M.E.; Mariani, S.; +1 Authors

    Purpose of reviewCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the way we had to approach hospital- and intensive care unit (ICU)-related resource management, especially for demanding techniques required for advanced support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).Recent findingsAvailability of ICU beds and ECMO machines widely varies around the world. In critical conditions, such a global pandemic, the establishment of contingency capacity tiers might help in defining to which conditions and subjects ECMO can be offered. A frequent reassessment of the resource saturation, possibly integrated within a regional healthcare coordination system, may be of help to triage the patients who most likely will benefit from advanced techniques, especially when capacities are limited.SummaryIndications to ECMO during the pandemic should be fluid and may be adjusted over time. Candidacy of patients should follow the same prepandemic rules, taking into account the acute disease, the burden of any eventual comorbidity and the chances of a good quality of life after recovery; but the current capacity of healthcare system should also be considered, and frequently reassessed, possibly within a wide hub-and-spoke healthcare system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Authors: de Bock, Ellen; Herman, Eline S.; Bastian, Okan W.; Filipe, Mando D.; +2 Authors

    Background: To provide for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) healthcare capacity, (surgical oncology) guidelines were established, forcing to alter the timing of performing surgical procedures. It is essential to determine whether these guidelines have led to disease progression. This study aims to give an insight into the number of surgical oncology procedures performed during the pandemic and provide information on short-term clinical outcomes. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed on all COVID-19 articles including operated patients, published before March 21, 2022. Meta-analysis was performed to visualize the number of performed surgical oncology procedures during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. Random effects models were used for evaluating short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-four studies containing 6762 patients who underwent a surgical oncology procedure during the pandemic were included. The number of performed surgical procedures for an oncological pathology decreased (−26.4%) during the pandemic. The number of performed surgical procedures for breast cancer remained stable (+0.3%). Moreover, no difference was identified in the number of ≥T2 (OR 1.00, P = 0.989), ≥T3 (OR 0.95, P = 0.778), ≥N1 (OR 1.01, P = 0.964) and major postoperative complications (OR 1.55, P = 0.134) during the pandemic. Conclusion: The number of performed surgical oncology procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased. In addition, the number of performed surgical breast cancer procedures remained stable. Oncological staging and major postoperative complications showed no significant difference compared to pre-pandemic practice. During future pandemics, the performed surgical oncology practice during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic seems appropriate for short-term results.

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    Authors: Girase, Bhushan; Parikh, Rachana; Vashisht, Samica; Mullick, Anushka; +2 Authors

    India's response to meet the mental health needs of 252 million young people between 15 and 24 years is guided by the Mental Healthcare Act 2017 (MHCA), which advocates a rights-based approach to receiving mental healthcare, the National Mental Health Policy 2014, and the National Mental Health Program operational since 1982. We undertook a comprehensive narrative review of policies, programs, and legislations across five ministries of the Government of India—Health and Family Welfare, Education, Women and Child Development, Youth Affairs and Sports, and Social Justice and Empowerment—over the last ten years to map their approach and identify enablers and barriers for promoting youth mental health in India. Our work builds on the previous reviews on children and adolescents’ mental health in India and captures the rapidly advancing policy landscape amidst the new challenges and opportunities presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially the increasing acceptability of digital health interventions including tele-consultations. We note that all the five ministries recognized mental health as an important aspect of overall development and well-being of young people. However, their approach is fragmented and a comprehensive approach to youth mental health is missing in the Indian context. Having said that, many enablers for integration of preventive, promotive, and curative mental health interventions exist especially as mental health is increasingly being recognized as an integral part of the comprehensive primary healthcare. However, much needs to be done in terms of strategic planning for screening, early detection and treatment, and developing strong referral systems between community, schools and mental healthcare services. Effective implementation of MHCA, sustainable intersectoral integration of mental health across youth-oriented services, empowerment of young people, and judicious use of digital technology hold the key to reimagining the approach to advance young people's mental health in India.

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    Authors: Garg, Mandeep; Karami, Vahid; Moazen, Javad; Kwee, Thomas; +3 Authors

    Since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, there has been an unprecedented increase in the acquisition of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. Nearly 616 million people have been infected by COVID-19 worldwide to date, of whom many were subjected to CT scanning. CT exposes the patients to hazardous ionizing radiation, which can damage the genetic material in the cells, leading to stochastic health effects in the form of heritable genetic mutations and increased cancer risk. These probabilistic, long-term carcinogenic effects of radiation can be seen over a lifetime and may sometimes take several decades to manifest. This review briefly describes what is known about the health effects of radiation, the lowest dose for which there exists compelling evidence about increased radiation-induced cancer risk and the evidence regarding this risk at typical CT doses. The lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer from low- and standard-dose chest CT scans performed in COVID-19 subjects is also discussed along with the projected number of future cancers that could be related to chest CT scans performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The LAR of cancer Incidence from chest CT has also been compared with those from other radiation sources, daily life risks and lifetime baseline risk.

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    Authors: Ojha, Narendra; Soni, Meghna; Kumar, Manish; Gunthe, Sachin S.; +2 Authors

    Purpose of Review: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) pose a significant risk to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently revised healthy thresholds for both pollutants. The formation and evolution of PM2.5 and O3 are however governed by complex physical and multiphase chemical processes, and therefore, it is extremely challenging to mitigate both pollutants simultaneously. Here, we review mechanisms and discuss the science-informed pathways for effective and simultaneous mitigation of PM2.5 and O3. Recent Findings: Global warming has led to a general increase in biogenic emissions, which can enhance the formation of O3 and secondary organic aerosols. Reductions in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown reduced PM2.5; however, O3 was enhanced in several polluted regions. This was attributed to more intense sunlight due to low aerosol loading and non-linear response of O3 to NOx. Such contrasting physical and chemical interactions hinder the formulation of a clear roadmap for clean air over such regions. Summary: Atmospheric chemistry including the role of biogenic emissions, aerosol-radiation interactions, boundary layer, and regional-scale transport are the key aspects that need to be carefully considered in the formulation of mitigation pathways. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the chemical effects of the emission reductions, changes in photolytic rates and boundary layer due to perturbation of solar radiation, and the effect of meteorological/seasonal changes are needed on a regional basis. Statistical emulators and machine learning approaches can aid the cumbersome process of multi-sector multi-species source attribution.

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    Authors: Rosetti, Ilaria; de Waal, Maaike S.; de Groot, Mara; Jinadasa, Uditha;

    Cities are in a constant process of change and are the theater of interaction among people and their complex, historically multi-layered, culturally diverse living environment. Therefore, various interests, needs, and values affect these dynamics of interaction and urban change, which bring challenges and opportunities for the development of cities. Particularly, when urban development deals with such complex living environment and the management and conservation of both listed and non-listed heritage – as in the case of World Heritage cities – a variety of public and private, and global and local stakeholders are affected by processes of change. Inclusive approaches in the negotiation of these changes that involve all these actors is increasingly advocated for a more sustainable urban development. In the past three decades, the emergence of the so-called living heritage approach promotes the empowerment of those communities, groups, and individuals that keep heritage alive in participating in decision- making over the management of urban developments, and heritage management and conservation that affect them. The preservation of their continuous relationship with their heritage is considered key to fostering the mutual benefit of cities, heritage, and society. While research worldwide offers examples of best practices, the implementation of these approaches still faces many barriers and new challenges. This book aims to explore how (World) Heritage Cities are dealing with the preservation of their living heritage, what is needed for its effective management, what approaches are adopted, and what challenges and opportunities are encountered. Results offer an overview of current practices, which also include some of the first testimonies of their evolution in the time of a global pandemic (COVID-19), that can inform future research and urban strategies.

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    Authors: Aasman, Susan; Brügger, Niels; Clavert, Frédéric; de Wild, Karin; +3 Authors

    AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID-19 Crisis) is a project developed by the members of WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) Working Group 2 that focuses on analysing transnational events. This is one of the first research projects using an IIPC collaborative collection and ARCH (Archives Research Compute Hub), a new interface for web archive analysis created by the Archives Unleashed Project Team and the Internet Archive.

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    Authors: Pratama, Nando Reza; Wafa, Ifan Ali; Budi, David Setyo; Sutanto, Henry; +3 Authors

    Vaccine effectiveness (VE) and the urgency of booster vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant need evaluation. A systematic search was conducted from 1-6 April, 2022. VE difference (VED) estimates were assessed using random-effects and meta-regression analyses were performed for evaluating VE over time. Compared to full dose, booster dose of overall vaccines provided better protection against any and severe Omicron infections within 3 months (p < 0.001), and within 3 months or more in any, severe, and symptomatic infections (p < 0.001). From meta-regression analysis of overall vaccines, the full-dose VE against any and symptomatic Omicron infections reduced per month by 2.45% and 5.5%, respectively; whereas booster dose effectiveness against any and symptomatic Omicron infections reduced per month by 1.79% and 1.14%, respectively. The VE estimates of booster dose provide excellent protection against symptomatic infection compared to full dose. The VE estimates of Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and mRNA-1273 against Omicron infection are generally moderate, despite the VE estimates declining over time.

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    Authors: Meijer, Joyce; Siesling, Sabine;

    Joyce Meijer, onderzoeker, IKNL, locatie Enschede, presenteert namens Wouter Wolfkamp en collegae het onderzoek naar de impact van de COVID-19-pandemie op het diagnostisch traject in het ziekenhuis van borstkankerpatiënten. Prof. dr. Sabine Siesling, klinisch epidemioloog bij het IKNL en Universiteit Twente, bespreekt het onderzoek van Anouk Eikelboom en collegae namens IKNL en de Noorse kankerregistratie over de impact van de COVID-19-pandemie op de diagnose en stadium van borstkanker. Ten slotte bespreekt Joyce Meijer het onderzoek van Lotte van Dongen en collegae dat zij presenteerde over de impact van COVID-19 op de follow-up van borstkankerpatiënten in Nederland.

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    Authors: Daniel, Michelle; Gottlieb, Michael; Wooten, Darcy; Stojan, Jennifer; +22 Authors

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused graduate medical education (GME) programs to pivot to virtual interviews (VIs) for recruitment and selection. This systematic review synthesizes the rapidly expanding evidence base on VIs, providing insights into preferred formats, strengths, and weaknesses. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, MedEdPublish, and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2012 to 21 February 2022. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, full texts, performed data extraction, and assessed risk of bias using the Medical Education Research Quality Instrument. Findings were reported according to Best Evidence in Medical Education guidance. RESULTS: One hundred ten studies were included. The majority (97%) were from North America. Fourteen were conducted before COVID-19 and 96 during the pandemic. Studies involved both medical students applying to residencies (61%) and residents applying to fellowships (39%). Surgical specialties were more represented than other specialties. Applicants preferred VI days that lasted 4-6 h, with three to five individual interviews (15-20 min each), with virtual tours and opportunities to connect with current faculty and trainees. Satisfaction with VIs was high, though both applicants and programs found VIs inferior to in-person interviews for assessing 'fit.' Confidence in ranking applicants and programs was decreased. Stakeholders universally noted significant cost and time savings with VIs, as well as equity gains and reduced carbon footprint due to eliminating travel. CONCLUSIONS: The use of VIs for GME recruitment and selection has accelerated rapidly. The findings of this review offer early insights that can guide future practice, policy, and research.

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    Authors: Nardelli, P.; Scandroglio, A.M.; De Piero, M.E.; Mariani, S.; +1 Authors

    Purpose of reviewCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the way we had to approach hospital- and intensive care unit (ICU)-related resource management, especially for demanding techniques required for advanced support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).Recent findingsAvailability of ICU beds and ECMO machines widely varies around the world. In critical conditions, such a global pandemic, the establishment of contingency capacity tiers might help in defining to which conditions and subjects ECMO can be offered. A frequent reassessment of the resource saturation, possibly integrated within a regional healthcare coordination system, may be of help to triage the patients who most likely will benefit from advanced techniques, especially when capacities are limited.SummaryIndications to ECMO during the pandemic should be fluid and may be adjusted over time. Candidacy of patients should follow the same prepandemic rules, taking into account the acute disease, the burden of any eventual comorbidity and the chances of a good quality of life after recovery; but the current capacity of healthcare system should also be considered, and frequently reassessed, possibly within a wide hub-and-spoke healthcare system.

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    Authors: de Bock, Ellen; Herman, Eline S.; Bastian, Okan W.; Filipe, Mando D.; +2 Authors

    Background: To provide for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) healthcare capacity, (surgical oncology) guidelines were established, forcing to alter the timing of performing surgical procedures. It is essential to determine whether these guidelines have led to disease progression. This study aims to give an insight into the number of surgical oncology procedures performed during the pandemic and provide information on short-term clinical outcomes. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed on all COVID-19 articles including operated patients, published before March 21, 2022. Meta-analysis was performed to visualize the number of performed surgical oncology procedures during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. Random effects models were used for evaluating short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-four studies containing 6762 patients who underwent a surgical oncology procedure during the pandemic were included. The number of performed surgical procedures for an oncological pathology decreased (−26.4%) during the pandemic. The number of performed surgical procedures for breast cancer remained stable (+0.3%). Moreover, no difference was identified in the number of ≥T2 (OR 1.00, P = 0.989), ≥T3 (OR 0.95, P = 0.778), ≥N1 (OR 1.01, P = 0.964) and major postoperative complications (OR 1.55, P = 0.134) during the pandemic. Conclusion: The number of performed surgical oncology procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased. In addition, the number of performed surgical breast cancer procedures remained stable. Oncological staging and major postoperative complications showed no significant difference compared to pre-pandemic practice. During future pandemics, the performed surgical oncology practice during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic seems appropriate for short-term results.

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    Authors: Girase, Bhushan; Parikh, Rachana; Vashisht, Samica; Mullick, Anushka; +2 Authors

    India's response to meet the mental health needs of 252 million young people between 15 and 24 years is guided by the Mental Healthcare Act 2017 (MHCA), which advocates a rights-based approach to receiving mental healthcare, the National Mental Health Policy 2014, and the National Mental Health Program operational since 1982. We undertook a comprehensive narrative review of policies, programs, and legislations across five ministries of the Government of India—Health and Family Welfare, Education, Women and Child Development, Youth Affairs and Sports, and Social Justice and Empowerment—over the last ten years to map their approach and identify enablers and barriers for promoting youth mental health in India. Our work builds on the previous reviews on children and adolescents’ mental health in India and captures the rapidly advancing policy landscape amidst the new challenges and opportunities presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially the increasing acceptability of digital health interventions including tele-consultations. We note that all the five ministries recognized mental health as an important aspect of overall development and well-being of young people. However, their approach is fragmented and a comprehensive approach to youth mental health is missing in the Indian context. Having said that, many enablers for integration of preventive, promotive, and curative mental health interventions exist especially as mental health is increasingly being recognized as an integral part of the comprehensive primary healthcare. However, much needs to be done in terms of strategic planning for screening, early detection and treatment, and developing strong referral systems between community, schools and mental healthcare services. Effective implementation of MHCA, sustainable intersectoral integration of mental health across youth-oriented services, empowerment of young people, and judicious use of digital technology hold the key to reimagining the approach to advance young people's mental health in India.

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    Authors: Garg, Mandeep; Karami, Vahid; Moazen, Javad; Kwee, Thomas; +3 Authors

    Since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, there has been an unprecedented increase in the acquisition of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. Nearly 616 million people have been infected by COVID-19 worldwide to date, of whom many were subjected to CT scanning. CT exposes the patients to hazardous ionizing radiation, which can damage the genetic material in the cells, leading to stochastic health effects in the form of heritable genetic mutations and increased cancer risk. These probabilistic, long-term carcinogenic effects of radiation can be seen over a lifetime and may sometimes take several decades to manifest. This review briefly describes what is known about the health effects of radiation, the lowest dose for which there exists compelling evidence about increased radiation-induced cancer risk and the evidence regarding this risk at typical CT doses. The lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer from low- and standard-dose chest CT scans performed in COVID-19 subjects is also discussed along with the projected number of future cancers that could be related to chest CT scans performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The LAR of cancer Incidence from chest CT has also been compared with those from other radiation sources, daily life risks and lifetime baseline risk.

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    Authors: Ojha, Narendra; Soni, Meghna; Kumar, Manish; Gunthe, Sachin S.; +2 Authors

    Purpose of Review: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) pose a significant risk to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently revised healthy thresholds for both pollutants. The formation and evolution of PM2.5 and O3 are however governed by complex physical and multiphase chemical processes, and therefore, it is extremely challenging to mitigate both pollutants simultaneously. Here, we review mechanisms and discuss the science-informed pathways for effective and simultaneous mitigation of PM2.5 and O3. Recent Findings: Global warming has led to a general increase in biogenic emissions, which can enhance the formation of O3 and secondary organic aerosols. Reductions in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown reduced PM2.5; however, O3 was enhanced in several polluted regions. This was attributed to more intense sunlight due to low aerosol loading and non-linear response of O3 to NOx. Such contrasting physical and chemical interactions hinder the formulation of a clear roadmap for clean air over such regions. Summary: Atmospheric chemistry including the role of biogenic emissions, aerosol-radiation interactions, boundary layer, and regional-scale transport are the key aspects that need to be carefully considered in the formulation of mitigation pathways. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the chemical effects of the emission reductions, changes in photolytic rates and boundary layer due to perturbation of solar radiation, and the effect of meteorological/seasonal changes are needed on a regional basis. Statistical emulators and machine learning approaches can aid the cumbersome process of multi-sector multi-species source attribution.

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