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53 Research products, page 4 of 6

  • COVID-19
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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stack, Michelle;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Building equitable, accessible and affordable campuses through Co-operatives. Webinars discussing co-operatives, what they are and how they could make for more equitable and accessible campus communities. Co-op webinar 1. This video is part of the first webinar in the webinar series on "COVID-19 Response: Building Higher Learning Resilience in the Face of Epidemics". Webinar occurred on February 24th, 2021.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Esliger, Bob;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Vancouver Island University (VIU), with the support of the British Columbia Council of Administrators of Inclusive Supports in Education (BCCAISE), conducted a province-wide study on the barriers and issues identified in providing equitable and accessible educational programs to students with disabilities or diverse abilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, this study looked at the district structures/frameworks that support students and staff and how those structures/ frameworks were impacted by COVID-19. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25226/Esliger2021.pdf?sequence=6

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Noon, Cheryl A.;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Reggio Emilia education began in Italy following World War II. In recent years, as educational reforms have focused more on experiential, hands-on, or inquiry-based learning, the Reggio Approach has spread worldwide. However, with the Covid-19 pandemic, the Reggio Approach and its learners suffered as learning was moved online. This sudden demand for technology-based learning left students and teachers of British Columbia —and globally —in a scramble to find, adapt, or develop new pedagogy and resources, but particularly challenged the core values of Reggio programs. This project looks to unite the values and pedagogy of Reggio-inspired education with the technology-based practices that are becoming commonplace in schools. Specifically, this project is based on an intermediate elementary learning environment in a Reggio-inspired setting and examines the lack of research in these areas. The Reggio Approach is most frequently used with young students while technology-based education is used with older students and implemented by teachers who are comfortable and competent with the available tools and resources. Through this project, the gap that is intermediate elementary is examined in both the context of Reggio-inspired education and technology-based resources. Finally, this project is dedicated to merging technology into the Reggio Approach in a way that respects the philosophy. The project itself presents a number of technological resources and tools that can be used within the Reggio pedagogy https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/24400/Noon.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Corea, Sonja;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    In March 2020, schools in British Columbia were closed indefinitely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The uncertainty of the whole situation was a traumatic event for both staff and students in BC schools. Even when staff and students returned to school, teachers had to learn a new way of connecting with their students and delivering curriculum. When schools reopened, educators had to address and ensure the Social Emotional Learning (SEL) needs of their students were being met. This pandemic increased anxiety and affected the mental health of staff and students in BC schools. Using a mixed method design, I explored the relationship between mental health and social emotional learning. Through an explanatory sequential approach, I utilized questionnaires followed by one-on-one interviews as my research tools. The purpose of this research was to gather data about the effects of COVID on the mental health of staff, students, and their families, and identify which SEL practices were most commonly used and found most effective during this time. The data triangulated between the questionnaires and the one-on-one interviews resulted in five main recommendations: increased mindfulness practices within the classroom and school, opportunities to connect with each other every day, additional exercise and time spent outdoors, and implementing strategies to prevent teacher burnout. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25741/Corea.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Prost, Mitchell;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Building equitable, accessible and affordable campuses through Co-operatives. Webinars discussing co-operatives, what they are and how they could make for more equitable and accessible campus communities. Co-op webinar 1. This video is part of the first webinar in the webinar series on "COVID-19 Response: Building Higher Learning Resilience in the Face of Epidemics". Webinar occurred on February 24th, 2021.

  • Open Access English
    Publisher: Canadian Institute of Planners
    Country: Canada

    The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà / Kent Munro & Ray Tomalty -- Technological change and COVID-19: Adaptations for work and communities / Matthew Robinson -- How planners can help main streets adapt and recover / Judy Morgan -- Connecting across cultures: A model for engaging ethnocultural communities in emergency response / Aaron Lao & Belle Cheung -- Parks and the pandemic: Future implication for disaster response through a lens of urgent biophilia / Sasha Mosky and Mikiko Terashima -- Pandemic patios and "flat white" urbanism / Amina Yasin & Daniella Fergusson -- Racialized impacts of COVID-19: A wake-up call for urban planning / Robin Basalaev-Binder & Kevin Manaugh -- COVID-19 and uncertainty: Insights from collaboration between a regional government and a university / Pierre Filion, Markus Moos, & Jean Andrey -- Rues ludiques et rues-écoles : Comment de nouveaux modèles de transformation de la chaussée peuvent aider à redonner la ville aux jeunes pendant la pandémie (et après) / Julien Voyer, Audrey Lise Mallet, Katherine Frohlich, & Mikael St-Pierre -- How COVID-19 affected Ottawa's approach to planning / Stephen Willis -- Building resiliency through 15-minute neighbourhoods / Inge Roosendaal & Alain Miguelez -- Public transport during the COVID-19 pandemic / Ajay Agarwal & Claire Lee -- What does public engagement look like during a global pandemic? / Dallas Clowes, Stirling Scory, & Jana Zelenski -- CIP honours and awards / L’ICU honneurs et prix -- COVID-19: The end of an era|COVID-19 : La fin d’une ère / Ken Cameron -- Planning research digest|Condensé de recherches en urbanisme -- Planner's bookshelf The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà / Kent Munro & Ray Tomalty -- Technological change and COVID-19: Adaptations for work and communities / Matthew Robinson -- How planners can help main streets adapt and recover / Judy Morgan -- Connecting across cultures: A model for engaging ethnocultural communities in emergency response / Aaron Lao & Belle Cheung -- Parks and the pandemic: Future implication for disaster response through a lens of urgent biophilia / Sasha Mosky and Mikiko Terashima -- Pandemic patios and "flat white" urbanism / Amina Yasin & Daniella Fergusson -- Racialized impacts of COVID-19: A wake-up call for urban planning / Robin Basalaev-Binder & Kevin Manaugh -- COVID-19 and uncertainty: Insights from collaboration between a regional government and a university / Pierre Filion, Markus Moos, & Jean Andrey -- Rues ludiques et rues-écoles : Comment de nouveaux modèles de transformation de la chaussée peuvent aider à redonner la ville aux jeunes pendant la pandémie (et après) / Julien Voyer, Audrey Lise Mallet, Katherine Frohlich, & Mikael St-Pierre -- How COVID-19 affected Ottawa's approach to planning / Stephen Willis -- Building resiliency through 15-minute neighbourhoods / Inge Roosendaal & Alain Miguelez -- Public transport during the COVID-19 pandemic / Ajay Agarwal & Claire Lee -- What does public engagement look like during a global pandemic? / Dallas Clowes, Stirling Scory, & Jana Zelenski -- CIP honours and awards / L’ICU honneurs et prix -- COVID-19: The end of an era|COVID-19 : La fin d’une ère / Ken Cameron -- Planning research digest|Condensé de recherches en urbanisme -- Planner's bookshelf https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25296/PlanCanada_Winter2020.pdf?sequence=3

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mattice, Carolin C.;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Due to the implementation of the BC Ministry of Education (MoE) new Career Life Education, Career Life Connections and Capstone (CLE/CLC/Capstone) curriculum at the start of the 2018-2019 school year there was a need for secondary schools to create new ways to implement this curriculum. BC secondary schools were responsible for implementing the new program in a way that would best accommodate the needs of the school and learning community. The intent of this Project is represented by the critical challenge question; How can technology be used in a Blended Learning environment to assist in implementing an innovative and sustainable Career Life Education, Career Life Connections (CLE/CLC) and Capstone program that is beneficial and engaging to secondary students? This Project also represents how such a program was implemented into a secondary school timetable and the processes and technology used to create a Blended Learning Career Education program called Connections. The process also includes ways to overcome barriers when looking at implementing a new program into a school organization that was resistant to change. The Project deliverable is presented in a Weebly website resource: http://careeredconnections.weebly.com/ and describes the development and evolution of a Blended Learning format, overcoming potential school site barriers, important learning curricular content and technology used. A breakdown of the program in action since 2018-2019 and adaptations due to the COVID-19 learning disruption of 2020 is also included in the deliverable. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/23551/Mattice.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gedak, Lisa Ruth;
    Country: Canada

    In the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in sudden school closures worldwide, including the critical learning years from early kindergarten to grade twelve (K-12). Teachers, students, parents, administrators, and staff were thrust into learning at a distance. This qualitative case study focussed on a specific islands district in British Columbia, Canada, where the school community's personal experiences during the pandemic were examined. An Appreciative Inquiry approach was used to investigate the voices of everyone in the school community in this unique District with the hope of positively impacting future district decisions. Data was collected through an online survey, interviews, and a mini focus group. Thematic analysis resulted in the identification of three central themes: (1) reciprocal learning, (2) the adoption of technology, and (3) re-imagining the curriculum. The results of this study include recommendations, strategies, and actions for decision-makers to consider for the future of education delivery in K-12 districts worldwide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lawrence, Anna;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between leisure, basic psychological needs, and resilience during times of uncertainty. The context of this research was conducted within leisure gardeners on Vancouver Island, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This thesis acknowledges a call to develop leisure frameworks that incorporate basic psychological needs (Gui et al., 2019a; Leithwood, 2020), and to the author’s knowledge, is the first study to investigate that in tandem with resilience and times of uncertainty. Data collection occurred over the summer months of 2020 and utilized photovoice and semi-structured interviews to document psychological implications of the pursuit. The data was thematically analyzed and indicated that all participants reported a heightened sense of resilience because of their decision to garden as a leisure pursuit. The data also indicated that leisure gardening has a positive effect on participants’ basic psychological needs, while the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect. A proposed framework was developed linking times of uncertainty, leisure pursuits catering towards basic psychological need criteria, and resilience, to be tested in future studies. Implications of an effective framework could inform psychological sustainability initiatives, including personal wellness strategies and disaster preparedness plans. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25991/Lawrence.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burns, Hayley;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Tourism has been affected on a global scale due to the novel coronavirus. Governments of all levels are trying to navigate how to move forward with the tourism industry in order to support best practices whilst addressing challenges that hinder economic prosperity, such as social distancing and border closures. This work focuses on identifying the local government planning and tourism resilience practices that are being put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, establishing the role of the local government planner in tourism resilience planning practices. Research was first acquired through a literature review and providing the Vancouver Island context. Additionally, four information interviews were conducted with destination management organization professionals and community planners on Vancouver Island. Lastly, a survey was sent out to local government planners on Vancouver Island in order to reach a larger scope of participants. Concluding this thesis are a set of recommendations rooted in local government jurisdiction for the planning profession, moving forward. Thesis/major project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Community Planning in the Department of Community Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/24390/BurnsThesis.pdf?sequence=3

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
53 Research products, page 4 of 6
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stack, Michelle;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Building equitable, accessible and affordable campuses through Co-operatives. Webinars discussing co-operatives, what they are and how they could make for more equitable and accessible campus communities. Co-op webinar 1. This video is part of the first webinar in the webinar series on "COVID-19 Response: Building Higher Learning Resilience in the Face of Epidemics". Webinar occurred on February 24th, 2021.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Esliger, Bob;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Vancouver Island University (VIU), with the support of the British Columbia Council of Administrators of Inclusive Supports in Education (BCCAISE), conducted a province-wide study on the barriers and issues identified in providing equitable and accessible educational programs to students with disabilities or diverse abilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, this study looked at the district structures/frameworks that support students and staff and how those structures/ frameworks were impacted by COVID-19. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25226/Esliger2021.pdf?sequence=6

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Noon, Cheryl A.;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Reggio Emilia education began in Italy following World War II. In recent years, as educational reforms have focused more on experiential, hands-on, or inquiry-based learning, the Reggio Approach has spread worldwide. However, with the Covid-19 pandemic, the Reggio Approach and its learners suffered as learning was moved online. This sudden demand for technology-based learning left students and teachers of British Columbia —and globally —in a scramble to find, adapt, or develop new pedagogy and resources, but particularly challenged the core values of Reggio programs. This project looks to unite the values and pedagogy of Reggio-inspired education with the technology-based practices that are becoming commonplace in schools. Specifically, this project is based on an intermediate elementary learning environment in a Reggio-inspired setting and examines the lack of research in these areas. The Reggio Approach is most frequently used with young students while technology-based education is used with older students and implemented by teachers who are comfortable and competent with the available tools and resources. Through this project, the gap that is intermediate elementary is examined in both the context of Reggio-inspired education and technology-based resources. Finally, this project is dedicated to merging technology into the Reggio Approach in a way that respects the philosophy. The project itself presents a number of technological resources and tools that can be used within the Reggio pedagogy https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/24400/Noon.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Corea, Sonja;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    In March 2020, schools in British Columbia were closed indefinitely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The uncertainty of the whole situation was a traumatic event for both staff and students in BC schools. Even when staff and students returned to school, teachers had to learn a new way of connecting with their students and delivering curriculum. When schools reopened, educators had to address and ensure the Social Emotional Learning (SEL) needs of their students were being met. This pandemic increased anxiety and affected the mental health of staff and students in BC schools. Using a mixed method design, I explored the relationship between mental health and social emotional learning. Through an explanatory sequential approach, I utilized questionnaires followed by one-on-one interviews as my research tools. The purpose of this research was to gather data about the effects of COVID on the mental health of staff, students, and their families, and identify which SEL practices were most commonly used and found most effective during this time. The data triangulated between the questionnaires and the one-on-one interviews resulted in five main recommendations: increased mindfulness practices within the classroom and school, opportunities to connect with each other every day, additional exercise and time spent outdoors, and implementing strategies to prevent teacher burnout. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25741/Corea.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Prost, Mitchell;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Building equitable, accessible and affordable campuses through Co-operatives. Webinars discussing co-operatives, what they are and how they could make for more equitable and accessible campus communities. Co-op webinar 1. This video is part of the first webinar in the webinar series on "COVID-19 Response: Building Higher Learning Resilience in the Face of Epidemics". Webinar occurred on February 24th, 2021.

  • Open Access English
    Publisher: Canadian Institute of Planners
    Country: Canada

    The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà / Kent Munro & Ray Tomalty -- Technological change and COVID-19: Adaptations for work and communities / Matthew Robinson -- How planners can help main streets adapt and recover / Judy Morgan -- Connecting across cultures: A model for engaging ethnocultural communities in emergency response / Aaron Lao & Belle Cheung -- Parks and the pandemic: Future implication for disaster response through a lens of urgent biophilia / Sasha Mosky and Mikiko Terashima -- Pandemic patios and "flat white" urbanism / Amina Yasin & Daniella Fergusson -- Racialized impacts of COVID-19: A wake-up call for urban planning / Robin Basalaev-Binder & Kevin Manaugh -- COVID-19 and uncertainty: Insights from collaboration between a regional government and a university / Pierre Filion, Markus Moos, & Jean Andrey -- Rues ludiques et rues-écoles : Comment de nouveaux modèles de transformation de la chaussée peuvent aider à redonner la ville aux jeunes pendant la pandémie (et après) / Julien Voyer, Audrey Lise Mallet, Katherine Frohlich, & Mikael St-Pierre -- How COVID-19 affected Ottawa's approach to planning / Stephen Willis -- Building resiliency through 15-minute neighbourhoods / Inge Roosendaal & Alain Miguelez -- Public transport during the COVID-19 pandemic / Ajay Agarwal & Claire Lee -- What does public engagement look like during a global pandemic? / Dallas Clowes, Stirling Scory, & Jana Zelenski -- CIP honours and awards / L’ICU honneurs et prix -- COVID-19: The end of an era|COVID-19 : La fin d’une ère / Ken Cameron -- Planning research digest|Condensé de recherches en urbanisme -- Planner's bookshelf The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà The pandemic and beyond|La pandémie et au delà / Kent Munro & Ray Tomalty -- Technological change and COVID-19: Adaptations for work and communities / Matthew Robinson -- How planners can help main streets adapt and recover / Judy Morgan -- Connecting across cultures: A model for engaging ethnocultural communities in emergency response / Aaron Lao & Belle Cheung -- Parks and the pandemic: Future implication for disaster response through a lens of urgent biophilia / Sasha Mosky and Mikiko Terashima -- Pandemic patios and "flat white" urbanism / Amina Yasin & Daniella Fergusson -- Racialized impacts of COVID-19: A wake-up call for urban planning / Robin Basalaev-Binder & Kevin Manaugh -- COVID-19 and uncertainty: Insights from collaboration between a regional government and a university / Pierre Filion, Markus Moos, & Jean Andrey -- Rues ludiques et rues-écoles : Comment de nouveaux modèles de transformation de la chaussée peuvent aider à redonner la ville aux jeunes pendant la pandémie (et après) / Julien Voyer, Audrey Lise Mallet, Katherine Frohlich, & Mikael St-Pierre -- How COVID-19 affected Ottawa's approach to planning / Stephen Willis -- Building resiliency through 15-minute neighbourhoods / Inge Roosendaal & Alain Miguelez -- Public transport during the COVID-19 pandemic / Ajay Agarwal & Claire Lee -- What does public engagement look like during a global pandemic? / Dallas Clowes, Stirling Scory, & Jana Zelenski -- CIP honours and awards / L’ICU honneurs et prix -- COVID-19: The end of an era|COVID-19 : La fin d’une ère / Ken Cameron -- Planning research digest|Condensé de recherches en urbanisme -- Planner's bookshelf https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25296/PlanCanada_Winter2020.pdf?sequence=3

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mattice, Carolin C.;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Due to the implementation of the BC Ministry of Education (MoE) new Career Life Education, Career Life Connections and Capstone (CLE/CLC/Capstone) curriculum at the start of the 2018-2019 school year there was a need for secondary schools to create new ways to implement this curriculum. BC secondary schools were responsible for implementing the new program in a way that would best accommodate the needs of the school and learning community. The intent of this Project is represented by the critical challenge question; How can technology be used in a Blended Learning environment to assist in implementing an innovative and sustainable Career Life Education, Career Life Connections (CLE/CLC) and Capstone program that is beneficial and engaging to secondary students? This Project also represents how such a program was implemented into a secondary school timetable and the processes and technology used to create a Blended Learning Career Education program called Connections. The process also includes ways to overcome barriers when looking at implementing a new program into a school organization that was resistant to change. The Project deliverable is presented in a Weebly website resource: http://careeredconnections.weebly.com/ and describes the development and evolution of a Blended Learning format, overcoming potential school site barriers, important learning curricular content and technology used. A breakdown of the program in action since 2018-2019 and adaptations due to the COVID-19 learning disruption of 2020 is also included in the deliverable. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/23551/Mattice.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gedak, Lisa Ruth;
    Country: Canada

    In the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in sudden school closures worldwide, including the critical learning years from early kindergarten to grade twelve (K-12). Teachers, students, parents, administrators, and staff were thrust into learning at a distance. This qualitative case study focussed on a specific islands district in British Columbia, Canada, where the school community's personal experiences during the pandemic were examined. An Appreciative Inquiry approach was used to investigate the voices of everyone in the school community in this unique District with the hope of positively impacting future district decisions. Data was collected through an online survey, interviews, and a mini focus group. Thematic analysis resulted in the identification of three central themes: (1) reciprocal learning, (2) the adoption of technology, and (3) re-imagining the curriculum. The results of this study include recommendations, strategies, and actions for decision-makers to consider for the future of education delivery in K-12 districts worldwide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lawrence, Anna;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between leisure, basic psychological needs, and resilience during times of uncertainty. The context of this research was conducted within leisure gardeners on Vancouver Island, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This thesis acknowledges a call to develop leisure frameworks that incorporate basic psychological needs (Gui et al., 2019a; Leithwood, 2020), and to the author’s knowledge, is the first study to investigate that in tandem with resilience and times of uncertainty. Data collection occurred over the summer months of 2020 and utilized photovoice and semi-structured interviews to document psychological implications of the pursuit. The data was thematically analyzed and indicated that all participants reported a heightened sense of resilience because of their decision to garden as a leisure pursuit. The data also indicated that leisure gardening has a positive effect on participants’ basic psychological needs, while the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect. A proposed framework was developed linking times of uncertainty, leisure pursuits catering towards basic psychological need criteria, and resilience, to be tested in future studies. Implications of an effective framework could inform psychological sustainability initiatives, including personal wellness strategies and disaster preparedness plans. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25991/Lawrence.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burns, Hayley;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Tourism has been affected on a global scale due to the novel coronavirus. Governments of all levels are trying to navigate how to move forward with the tourism industry in order to support best practices whilst addressing challenges that hinder economic prosperity, such as social distancing and border closures. This work focuses on identifying the local government planning and tourism resilience practices that are being put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, establishing the role of the local government planner in tourism resilience planning practices. Research was first acquired through a literature review and providing the Vancouver Island context. Additionally, four information interviews were conducted with destination management organization professionals and community planners on Vancouver Island. Lastly, a survey was sent out to local government planners on Vancouver Island in order to reach a larger scope of participants. Concluding this thesis are a set of recommendations rooted in local government jurisdiction for the planning profession, moving forward. Thesis/major project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Community Planning in the Department of Community Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/24390/BurnsThesis.pdf?sequence=3