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21 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • COVID-19
  • 2021-2021
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qvortrup, Ane; Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark; Christensen, Vibeke; Lomholt, Rune; Nielsen, Anni; Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen; Clark, Aske;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Institut for Kulturvidenskaber
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frangoudes, Katia; Toonen, Hilde; Macias, Jordi Vegas; Ferguson, Laura; Flannery, Wesley; Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Sousa, Lisa; Pita, Cristina; da Silva, Ana Margarida Ferreira; Mylona, Dimitra; +2 more
    Publisher: PERICLES
    Country: Denmark

    This deliverable, D4.4, describes the "participatory framework for sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes" of the PERICLES project. It is the final deliverable for WP4, based on the four tasks carried out in this and other work packages. It brings together a synthesis of information already communicated in other reports (e.g. D4.1; D4.2; D4.3), and examples from the PERICLES case regions. In doing so, this deliverable presents the PERICLES participatory framework as practice-informed approach to understand, assess and enact sustainable management, conservation and use of European coastal and maritime cultural landscapes.In the PERICLES participatory risk assessment framework, defining risks and threats is seen as an important starting point because this enables clearer communication and therefore to create a common understanding among those stakeholders who are affected by threats, and those who are affecting andgoverning risks to coastal and maritime cultural heritage. In the PERICLES project, a distinction is made between natural/environmental and human-induced threats as captured in the first phase of the framework. At the same time, it is highlighted that such distinction can be artificial and should beconsidered with care, as represented in the two-layered design of the framework. Every step goes with questions for reflection for those using the framework, and the iterative loops contained within it. Governance, is seen as a process of steering at a strategic level in which a variety of actors can beinvolved yet not affected, can be affected yet marginalized or excluded, or anything in between. Risk management takes place at the more operational level but the power dynamics of a governance process are still important. As such the second phase of the risk assessment framework seeks to suggest participatory ways to assess, decide and evaluate risks.PERICLES partners had the ambition to test the framework in demo-specific risk assessment processes in the PERICLES case regions. This testing was planned at the case-region level between January 2020 and January 2021. However, due to pandemic related restriction (ban of meetings and curfews) it proved to be impossible to realise the testing and implementing of the framework in the way envisioned. As an alternative approach, PERICLES partners have looked at their demo work through the lens of the assessment framework and discussed this in four joint sessions. This led to enhanced, practice-informed insights on how the different steps worked out in several specific case regions. Furthermore, thepartners jointly reflected on the impact of COVID-19 on their own participatory strategies. It has been clear that the pandemic has hampered participation in demo activities and has also brought some to a stand-still. Mitigating measures were mainly through online activities, which allowed for opening up to new audiences but also brought forward forms of exclusion because of a digital divide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensby, Anne; Mogensen, Oliver Bendix Gammeljord; Svejvig, Per;
    Publisher: Aarhus University
    Country: Denmark

    The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions. The purpose of this report is to outline the evaluation and comparison approach and the knowledge obtained through a detailed data collection process, in order to examine the implementation and application of the Half Double Methodology (HDM) at Forsvarsministeriets Material- og Indkøbsstyrelse (FMI), as well as compare and contrast pilot and reference projects. State-owned FMI is the Danish Ministry of Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization (English abbreviation: DALO), and thus a unit under the Ministry of Defence and the Danish public sector. It is likely that the Half Double Methodology has had a positive impact on FMI and their team collaboration. The procurement process is faster, which especially is evident in pilot case 3, but also the initial versions of pilot case 1 and 2. However, here, the cases were subject to external conditions which increased the duration. FMI experiences satisfaction from stakeholders involved in the procurement. This satisfaction is also present in most of the team members engaging with the methodology. Hence overall, integrating the Half Double Methodology in FMI’s team collaboration is perceived as a success in FMI and continues to be applied. However, there is still room for improvements in the procurement process and team configuration. This relates to the application of HDM, but also other constraints in FMI, which is related to a lack of resources to develop interdisciplinary teams, as well as challenges from covid-19 restrictions.

  • Publication . Book . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godiksen, Jane Aanestad; Allegaert, Wim; Beier, Ulrika; Bekaert, Karen; Canha, Ângela; Carbonara, Pierluigi; Davies, Julie Coad; Farias, Inêz; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Gault, Mandy; +29 more
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
    Countries: Denmark, France

    The main objective of the Working Group on Biological Parameters (WGBIOP) is to review the status, issues, developments, and quality assurance of biological parameters for use in assessments and management that are in line with the requirements of end-users. In this final year of the three-year term, WGBIOP operated under challenging circumstances due to COVID-19 measures. The initial action plan was replaced by a more flexible one, where online plenary and subgroup meetings were spread over the year with intersessional work to finalize the proposed deliverables.WGBIOP continued the review of past exchanges and workshops under the remit of the working group. Since 2019, these calibrations on age, maturity, and larvae identification have been carried out in SmartDots, an online platform for sharing images and facilitating the reading of otoliths, staging of gonads, and identification of early life stages. Developments are underway to include an improved calculation of modal age and error matrices in the SmartDots standard report. WGBIOP investigated ways to incorporate error matrices into assessments and studied the effect of this inclusion together with stock assessors.Requests for new exchanges and workshops were reviewed, with a focus on stocks to be benchmarked in the coming years. Issue lists were scrutinized, problems identified, and information provided to stock coordinators via regular channels and through the Stock Identification Database (SID). Despite close cooperation with stock assessors and continued efforts, it has not been possible to further streamline the WGBIOP workflow with the benchmark process. This will be addressed with the Advisory Committee. The need for validation studies was stressed by the repeated low levels of agreement between readers of some stocks and recurring issues and recommendations to WGBIOP. Lack of resources is the main obstacle. As a first step for measures to prioritize validation studies, WGBIOP identified precision, trueness, and feasibility of validation methods (as well as the urgency for the assessment). WGBIOP continued investigations into new life-history parameters for integrated assessment and advice in cooperation with end-users (Working Group on Integrative, Physical biological and Ecosystem Modelling-WGIPEM and Regional Coordination Groups-RCGs). This included a standardization and quality assurance action plan for stomach sampling. Efforts have also been taken to streamline data and workflows across databases and groups. A step has been taken in the standardization of quality assurance procedures at the regional level. Institute-level overviews of methods and quality assurance protocols used for ageing and maturity are now available. Also, a new method for quality grading was developed, tested, and implemented in SmartDots.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Neufeldt, Henry; Dale, Thomas William;
    Publisher: UNEP DTU Partnership
    Country: Denmark

    Context and framing of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report 2021The sixth edition of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report (AGR2021) has been produced in the second year of the global COVID-19 pandemic. While encouraging trends in tackling the pandemic are emerging, including the unprecedented development and roll-out of highly effective vaccines in many industrialized countries, the COVID-19 crisis continues to create severe human health challenges, economic turmoil and recurring restrictions on daily life in most parts of the world. The pandemic’s impact on global climate change adaptation processes is increasingly visible through direct effects on adaptation planning and constraints on available finance. Climate impacts also tend to be more severe in vulnerable developing economies, many of which are also among the worst affected by COVID-19. At the same time, rescue andrecovery initiatives designed to kick start economies in the wake of the pandemic offer a unique opportunity to secure a green recovery by mainstreaming adaptation into public financing streams worth trillions of dollars, dwarfing the sums otherwise dedicated to adaptation. Furthermore, climate change and the pandemic share some striking similarities: like the pandemic, the climate change crisis is a systemic problem that requires coordinated global, national and local responses. Many of the lessons learned from handling the pandemic have the potential to serve as examples of how to improve climate adaptation planningand financing.Meanwhile, climate change continues its unrelenting path towards a warmer future. As the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), released in August 2021, starkly documents, some impacts are now irreversible. Many parts of the world have experienced unprecedented climate impacts this year, such as the heat dome and rampant wildfires in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America and Canada; severe flooding in Western Europe, eastern parts of the United States of America, the province of Henan in China, and the state of Maharashtra in India; and imminent hunger after continued droughts in Madagascar. The assessment report also documents how, even under the most optimistic emissions mitigation scenarios where net-zero is reached by around 2050, global warming will continue in the short to medium term, potentially levelling off at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. All this makes adaptation an increasingly urgent global imperative.At the political level, international climate efforts under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) continue, despite the postponement of the twenty-sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 26), which was put back from November 2020 to November 2021. COP 26 will have a strong focus on adaptation issues and will see consultations and work proceed towards the first Global Stocktake in 2023, including the submission of new and updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).AGR2021 provides an update on current actions and the emerging results of regional-level to national-level adaptation planning, finance and implementation worldwide (figure ES.1). All three elements are critical for tracking and assessing progress towards the global goal on adaptation. AGR2021 also expands and strengthens the assessment of future adaptation outcomes, in particular through the inclusion of qualitativeexpert judgements. In view of the ongoing pandemic, the report provides an in-depth assessment of the emerging consequences of COVID-19 in relation to adaptation planning and finance and highlights the lessons and opportunities for future adaptation efforts through economic growth and climate resilience as part of a green recovery.Status and progress of global adaptation planning, finance and implementationPLANNINGDespite the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change adaptation is becoming increasingly embedded in policy and planning across the world. National-level adaptation planning processes remain a critical element in the global response to the impacts of climate change, as underscored by the Paris Agreement. While early evidence suggests that some National Adaptation Plan (NAP) development processes have been delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among least developed countries, progress is still being made on national adaptation planning agendas. Around 79 per cent of all countries have now adopted at least onenational-level adaptation planning instrument (for example, a plan, strategy, policy or law). This is an increase of 7 per cent since 2020 (figure ES.1). Furthermore, 9 per cent of countries that do not currently have such an instrument in place are in the process of developing one (no change since 2020). At least 65 per cent of countries have one or more sectoral plans in place and at least 26 per cent have one or moresubnational planning instruments. 

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanev, Georgi Plamenov;
    Publisher: Technical University of Denmark
    Country: Denmark

    Digital microuidic biochips have emerged as a technology for miniaturizing and automating the traditional biochemical laboratory processes. The technology allows for direct programmatic control of droplets without the need for pumps, valves, or dened channels, which makes the digital microuidic biochips highly programmable and recongurable devices. Although the technology has already been in the research spotlight for over two decades, the digital microuidic biochips face signicant diculties in achieving wide-adoption and living up to the expectations for extensive miniaturization and automation of biomedical applications. Among the most signicant challenges is that digital microuidics is an interdisciplinary eld where the research is often focused on technology and component level rather than on a complete future proof system. Taking the digital microuidics past the step of technology demonstrators required bridging the gap between digital biochips presented in the context of application-specic short term research goals and a programmable applicationagnostic digital microuidics system. Hence, inspired by the heavily standardized microelectronics industry and modern computer architectures, this dissertation embarked on the journey to eciently connect the uidic and control domains into a vision for a modular and recongurable cyber-uidic architecture. The proposed architecture is based on the analysis of an extensive survey of existing technologies and systems, which conrmed that achieving the envisioned cyber-uidic architecture requires the design, fabrication, and operational aspects to be considered in symbiosis. The proposed cyber-uidic architecture is split into three loosely coupled parts; uidic, instrumentation, and virtual, where each part is deliberately designed in the context of its intrinsic relationships with the rest of the system. The cyber-uidic architecture was developed into a modular platform-based design, which allowed addressing the spectrum of accompanying challenges on a conceptual and technological level. The engineering research of the uidic system led to the development of a digital biochip with a large array of individually addressable electrodes, a novel design of recongurable embedded heaters, and an innovative low-cost coating method. This dissertation also discusses the design and implementation of the modular instrumentation system that embraces recongurability to provide an evolvable and scalable model for digital biochip instrumentation. We also conceptualized a software stack for programmable microuidics, including a uidic instruction set architecture, text and graphicalbased programming methods, and an execution model. The capabilities of the proposed cyber-uidic architecture and the constructed platform are demonstrated with several real-life protocols, namely performing a gene amplication by a polymerase chain reaction and magnetic beads-based enzymatic immunoassays targeting the detection of MRSA and SARS-CoV-2 spiked protein.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Irena Koprinska; Michael Kamp; Annalisa Appice; Corrado Loglisci; Luiza Antonie; Albrecht Zimmermann; Riccardo Guidotti; Özlem Özgöbek; Rita P. Ribeiro; Ricard Gavaldà; +20 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Denmark

    This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the workshops which complemented the 20th Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases, ECML PKDD, held in September 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic the conference and workshops were held online. The 43 papers presented in volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the following workshops: 5th Workshop on Data Science for Social Good, SoGood 2020; Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Federated Learning, PDFL 2020; Second Workshop on Machine Learning for Cybersecurity, MLCS 2020, 9th International Workshop on New Frontiers in Mining Complex Patterns, NFMCP 2020, Workshop on Data Integration and Applications, DINA 2020, Second Workshop on Evaluation and Experimental Design in Data Mining and Machine Learning, EDML 2020, Second International Workshop on eXplainable Knowledge Discovery in Data Mining, XKDD 2020; 8th International Workshop on News Recommendation and Analytics, INRA 2020.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qvortrup, Ane; Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark; Christensen, Vibeke; Lomholt, Rune; Nielsen, Anni; Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen; Clark, Aske;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Institut for Kulturvidenskaber
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wang, Xinhui;
    Publisher: DTU Bioengineering
    Country: Denmark

    Fungi are categorized as one of the five eukaryotic kingdoms, members of which fungal species occupy a unique biological niche and coexist in fierce competition with other organisms, and are vast resources of bioactive compounds targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Many secondary metabolites from fungi have been used as drugs or as inspiration for the development of drugs for the past century. Additionally, certain species produce compounds that have industrial applications, including flavorings, pigments, and other food additives. On the other hand, fungal infection of crops and subsequent contamination by mycotoxins continue to be a health threat. Moreover, the rise in resistance to antibiotics, cancer chemotherapeutics and pesticides is a major threat to modern health care and agriculture, and without effective antibiotics, many routine surgical procedures would become more difficult than before. Fortunately, with the increasing availability of the whole-genome information and the application of detailed bioinformatics analysis, the real microbial “secondary metabolites landscape” has been revealed to be much larger than previously anticipated. In line with this recent genomic studies of species in Aspergillus section Flavi and Nigri have demonstrated that this is also the case for the many species in these groups of fungi even though they are already relatively well studied. Because of this huge hidden potential of biosynthetic gene clusters and their related secondary metabolites, methods for detection and analysis of both industrial valuable compounds and mycotoxins are vital. The aim of this PhD project has been to investigate the chemical potential of species in filamentous fungi, mainly focusing on species from genus Aspergillus, as well as an understudied Penicillium species. Analysis and the discovery of fungal natural products has been investigated based on the targeted analysis, investigation of biosynthetic intermediates by LC-HRMS, and molecular networking strategies, followed by the isolation and identification of significant promising compounds. A targeted analysis approach was used to accelerate the identification and structural elucidation of newly identified natural products. The understudied species of Penicillium astrolabium was investigated for the production of the small peptide asperphenamate with antitumor activity. Initial one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) approach and targeted HRMS/MS analysis revealed two previously described and two novel asperphenamate analogues. By supplementing several proteogenic and non-proteogenic parasubstituted L-phenylalanine analogues, the biosynthesis of 22 new analogues was observed. Furthermore, the new analogues could readily be characterized by HRMS/MS, altogether demonstrating an unusual substrate uptake flexibility by the two non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) involved in asperphenamate biosynthesis.Another goal of this PhD project has been to speed up the coupling of important bioactive compounds to their precursors and to explore their biosynthetic pathways. Thus, one part of the study focused on investigation of the nature of the initial precursor involved in the biosynthesis of yanuthone X from Aspergillus niger. A previous study characterized the gene cluster for yanuthone D, and demonstrated that yanuthones originates from the polyketide 6-MSA, encoded by YanA in A. niger. Surprisingly, a second series of yanuthones were discovered, including yanuthone X1 and X2, that are biosynthesized from an unknown precursor. We hypothesized that shikimic acid could be the source of the C6 core scaffold involved in biosynthesis of yanuthone X1 and its analogues. Indeed, feeding experiments with 13C labeled shikimic acid and subsequent HRMS analysis of A. niger and a yanAΔ mutant strains, revealed incorporation of the labeled shikimic acid into yanuthone X1 and X2. This result supported the hypothesis that yanuthone X1 originates from the shikimic acid pathway. Subsequent analysis by molecular networking using HRMS/MS data uncovered additional yanuthone X analogues. Altogether, the combination of isotope labeling and molecular networking proved very effective for detection of biosynthetic precursors and of two structurally related meroterpenoids, that both rely on several of the same tailoring enzymes for the late part of their biosynthesis. In another study, the compound calipyridone A was discovered from the rare fungus A. californicus. Next, bioinformatics analysis and gene deletion experiments were used to establish the function of each gene included in the predicted gene cluster, altogether allowing for characterization of the pathway leading to biosynthesis of calipyridone A. Importantly, calipyridone A is the first microbial 2-pyridone metabolite that was formed without a ring expansion reaction catalyzed by P450, like Calipyridone B and C were demonstrated to have antiviral activities against SARS-Covid 19.As a major element of this PhD study, MS/MS based strategies were employed to conduct a comprehensive exploration of the secondary metabolite diversity in Aspergillus section Flavi, aiming at the discovery of "hidden" natural products especially from less investigated newly described species. More specifically, extracts from 23 taxonomically related fungal species in Aspergillus section Flavi were analyzed and dereplicated using both an in-house MS/MS library, as well as molecular networking, leading to the mapping of several known compound classes, as well as the discovery of new cyclopiazonic acid, fumifungin and tenuazonic acid producers. Additionally, this study revealed series-specific secondary metabolites, including a compound with a precursor mass of m/z 693.32, that could only be detected from A. caelatus, A. pseudotamarii and A. pseudocaelatus belonging to series Kitamyces. Subsequently, A. caelatus was chosen for the isolation and structural elucidation of novel bioactive compounds and putative chemical markers of m/z 693.32. Further investigation by feature-based molecular networking revealed additional structural isomers, leading to the characterization and isolation of six new compounds, named asperazine D-H and aspergillicin H. The asperazines D-H are dimers of two ditryptophenaline units, however the fact that different linkages are seen compared to other asperazines, indicates that a unique cytochrome P450s is required for their in A. caelatus. Finally, bioactivity-based molecular networking was used to characterize the bioactive compounds from a newly described species, A. sulphureoviridis. This led to the targeted isolation of six compounds including two new compounds named cladobotrin VII and cladobotrin VIII, along with tentative identification of other likely antibacterial compounds, that could however not be characterized due to very low production. Among the isolated compounds, F9775B showed anti-Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya solani activity with the IC50 of 89.4 and 59.3 µg/mL respectively. Cladobotrin VIII showed anti-B. subtilis activity with IC50 of 95 µg/mL. Additionally, A. sulphureoviridis and B. subtilis were co-cultured and MALDI-TOF was applied to map the distribution of the produced compounds during the co-cultivation. This revealed the distribution and upregulation of several antifungal lipopeptides produced by B. subtilis, including surfactins, iturins, fengycins, and what appears to be an unidentified class of compounds. Overall, the research of this PhD project has discovered several classes of bioactive fungal secondary metabolites, revealed the biosynthetic origins of several compounds, and highlighted the chemical diversity of Aspergillus section Flavi using different analytical approaches. This has included targeted mass spectrometry analyses, feeding experiments with isotope-labeled compounds, as well as molecular networking strategies. The applied approaches and obtained results have contributed new insights into the mass-spectrometry-based discovery of fungal secondary metabolites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McMullin, Caitlin;
    Publisher: International Labour Organization
    Country: Denmark

    This case study examines the financial mechanisms that support the social economy in Quebec, Canada. Quebec’s innovative social economy ecosystem is rooted in strong associative and cooperative traditions, well developed networks, and strong partnerships between the social economy and government. Among the key themes that emerged were the value of a large range of financial mechanisms available to meet the needs of SSE enterprises at different stages of development, and in particular, the development of ‘patient capital’ which has facilitated broader investment in collectively owned enterprises that operate for social and community benefit. In responding to COVID-19, the provincial government and other financial institutions have instituted relief efforts to support the SSE, and the SSE will form an important component of recovery efforts in terms of providing key services, helping integrate people into the workforce and facilitating the transition towards a more sustainable and socially responsible economy in the province.