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104 Research products, page 1 of 11

  • COVID-19
  • Article
  • DK
  • Theses@asb
  • Journal of Business Venturing Insights
  • Forschungsindex und Repositorium der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Baekgaard; Kim Sass Mikkelsen; Jonas Krogh Madsen; Julian Christensen;
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | POAB (802244)

    State actions impact the lives of citizens in general and government benefit recipients in particular. However, little is known about whether experiences of psychological costs among benefit recipients can be relieved by reducing compliance demands in interactions with the state. Across three studies, we provide evidence that reducing demands causes relief. In a survey experiment, we show that psychological costs experienced by Danish unemployment insurance recipients change in response to information about actual reduced compliance demands. In two field studies, we exploit survey data collected around a sudden, exogenous shock (the COVID-19 lockdown of the Danish society in March 2020), which led to immediate reductions in compliance demands in Denmark's active labor market policies. We test whether two groups of benefit recipients experienced reduced psychological costs in response to these sudden reductions in compliance demands imposed by the state. Across all studies, we find that the reduction of compliance demands is associated with an increased sense of autonomy, and in two of the three studies, it is associated with reduced stress. Overall, our findings suggest that psychological costs experienced by benefit recipients are indeed affected by state actions in the form of compliance demands. © 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Public Management Research Association.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shujing Chen; Dingyu Zhang; Tianqi Zheng; Yongfu Yu; Jinjun Jiang;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractFew data are available on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill COVID-19 with thrombosis prophylaxis. This study retrospectively included 88 patients in the ICU with critically ill COVID-19 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China. All patients underwent compression ultrasonography for identifying DVT. Firth logistic regression was used to examine the association of DVT with sex, age, hypoalbuminemia, D-dimer, and SOFA score. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and SOFA score of 88 patients were 63 (55–71) years old and 5 (4–6), respectively. Despite all patients receiving guideline-recommended low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 46% (95% CI 35–56%). Proximal DVT was recognized in 9% (95% CI 3–15%) of the patients, while 46% (95% CI 35–56%) of patients had distal DVT. All of the proximal DVT combined with distal DVT. Risk factors of DVT extension occurred in all distal DVT patients. As Padua score ≥ 4 or IMPROVE score ≥ 2, 53% and 46% of patients had DVT, respectively. Mortality was higher in patients with acute DVT (30%) compared with non-DVT (17%), but did not reach statistical significance. Hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% CI 0.06–0.05, P = 0.001), higher SOFA score (OR per IQR, 2.07; 95% CI 1.38–3.39, P = 0.001), and elevated D-dimer (OR per IQR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.03–1.84, P = 0.029) were significant DVT risk factors in multivariable analyses. High incidence of DVT was identified in patients with critically ill COVID-19, despite the use of guideline-recommended pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The presence of hypoalbuminemia, higher SOFA score, and elevated D-dimer were significantly independent risk factors of DVT. More effective VTE prevention and management strategies may need to be addressed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carsten K. Bak; Jeanne Ø. Krammer; Kevin Dadaczynski; Okan Orkan; Jesper von Seelen; Christina Prinds; Lene M. Søbjerg; Heidi Klakk;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Countries: Denmark, Germany

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant infodemic have emphasized the importance of digital health literacy (DHL) to global public health research and practice. The aim of this study was to examine information-seeking behavior, the ability to find, understand and deal with health information among university college students in Denmark and/in addition we wanted to examine the impact of their close social network on students’ ability to find and understand health information. This research was carried out as part of the COVID-HL university student survey by using a uniform questionnaire consisting of elaborated scales. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted at University College South during 4 weeks in April and May 2020. To capture DHL, four subscales of the DHL instrument were adapted to the pandemic context. A total of 59.9% of the students have sufficient DHL—most students find it rather easy to find information and are satisfied with the information they find on the internet. However, some (28.1%) students find it difficult to judge the quality and reliability of the information. Students with a sufficient level of DHL are more likely to seek information through search engines and websites of official institutions, while students with a limited level of DHL more often use social media for health information. Students with sufficient DHL more often share health information and less often ask for support in their network

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacob Bodilsen; Peter Brønnum Nielsen; Mette Søgaard; Michael Dalager-Pedersen; Lasse Speiser; Troels Yndigegn; Henrik Nielsen; Torben Larsen; Flemming Skjøth;
    Country: Denmark

    Objective To determine the incidence of hospital admissions and associated mortality rates for non-covid medical conditions during the covid-19 pandemic.Design Nationwide, population based cohort study.Setting Denmark from 13 March 2019 to 27 January 2021.Participants All Danish residents gt;1 year of age.Main outcomes measures Population based healthcare registries that encompass the entire Danish population were used to compare hospital admission and mortality rates during the covid-19 pandemic (from 11 March 2020 to 27 January 2021) with the prepandemic baseline data (from 13 March 2019 to 10 March 2020). Hospital admissions were categorised as covid-19 when patients were assigned a diagnosis code for covid-19 within five days of admission. All patients were followed until migration, death, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Rate ratios for hospital admissions were computed using Poisson regression and were directly standardised using the Danish population on 1 January 2019 as reference. 30 day mortality rate ratios were examined by Cox regression, adjusted for age and sex, and covid-19 diagnosis was used as a competing risk.Results 5 753 179 residents were identified during 567.8 million person weeks of observation, with 1 113 705 hospital admissions among 675 447 people. Compared with the prepandemic baseline period (mean hospital admission rate 204.1 per 100 000/week), the overall hospital admission rate for non-covid-19 conditions decreased to 142.8 per 100 000/week (rate ratio 0.70, 95.66 to 0.74) after the first national lockdown, followed by a gradual return to baseline levels until the second national lockdown when it decreased to 158.3 per 100 000/week (0.78, 0.73 to 0.82). This pattern was mirrored for most major diagnosis groups except for non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, nervous system diseases, cancer, heart failure, sepsis, and non-covid-19 respiratory infections, which remained lower throughout the study period. Overall 30 day mortality rates were higher during the first national lockdown (mortality rate ratio 1.28, 95.23 to 1.32) and the second national lockdown (1.20, 1.16 to 1.24), and these results were similar across most major diagnosis groups. For non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis, the 30 day mortality rate ratios were also higher between lockdown periods.Conclusions Hospital admissions for all major non-covid-19 disease groups decreased during national lockdowns compared with the prepandemic baseline period. Additionally, mortality rates were higher overall and for patients admitted to hospital with conditions such as respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis. Increased attention towards management of serious non-covid-19 medical conditions is warranted. Objective: To determine the incidence of hospital admissions and associated mortality rates for non-covid medical conditions during the covid-19 pandemic. Design: Nationwide, population based cohort study. Setting: Denmark from 13 March 2019 to 27 January 2021. Participants: All Danish residents >1 year of age. Main outcomes measures: Population based healthcare registries that encompass the entire Danish population were used to compare hospital admission and mortality rates during the covid-19 pandemic (from 11 March 2020 to 27 January 2021) with the prepandemic baseline data (from 13 March 2019 to 10 March 2020). Hospital admissions were categorised as covid-19 when patients were assigned a diagnosis code for covid-19 within five days of admission. All patients were followed until migration, death, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Rate ratios for hospital admissions were computed using Poisson regression and were directly standardised using the Danish population on 1 January 2019 as reference. 30 day mortality rate ratios were examined by Cox regression, adjusted for age and sex, and covid-19 diagnosis was used as a competing risk. Results: 5 753 179 residents were identified during 567.8 million person weeks of observation, with 1 113 705 hospital admissions among 675 447 people. Compared with the prepandemic baseline period (mean hospital admission rate 204.1 per 100 000/week), the overall hospital admission rate for non-covid-19 conditions decreased to 142.8 per 100 000/week (rate ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.74) after the first national lockdown, followed by a gradual return to baseline levels until the second national lockdown when it decreased to 158.3 per 100 000/week (0.78, 0.73 to 0.82). This pattern was mirrored for most major diagnosis groups except for non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, nervous system diseases, cancer, heart failure, sepsis, and non-covid-19 respiratory infections, which remained lower throughout the study period. Overall 30 day mortality rates were higher during the first national lockdown (mortality rate ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.32) and the second national lockdown (1.20, 1.16 to 1.24), and these results were similar across most major diagnosis groups. For non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis, the 30 day mortality rate ratios were also higher between lockdown periods. Conclusions: Hospital admissions for all major non-covid-19 disease groups decreased during national lockdowns compared with the prepandemic baseline period. Additionally, mortality rates were higher overall and for patients admitted to hospital with conditions such as respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis. Increased attention towards management of serious non-covid-19 medical conditions is warranted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bisoffi; Lilia Ahrné; Jessica Aschemann-Witzel; András Báldi; Kerstin Cuhls; Fabrice DeClerck; Fabrice DeClerck; Jessica Duncan; Henning Otte Hansen; Richard L. Hudson; +5 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Denmark, Denmark, Germany

    Three key transitions leading to a “safe and just” operating space, with a focus on food systems, emerged during the development of a Foresight study promoted by SCAR (Standing Committee on Agricultural Research1): (a) sustainable and healthy diets for all; (b) full circularity in the use of resources; (c) diversity as a key component of stable systems. As consequence of COVID-19, food emerged again as a central element of life, along with health, after decades in which food security was taken for granted, at least in most developed countries. The COVID-19 outbreak offered the opportunity for a reflection on the importance of resilience in emergencies. Sustainable and healthy diets for all, was shown, during the pandemic, to depend much more on social and economic conditions than on technical aspects of food production and processing. Agriculture and the agro-industry have now a potential to absorb, at least temporarily, workers laid out in other sectors; the pandemic could be an opportunity to re-think and re-value labor relationships in the sector as well as local productions and supply chains. A full circularity in food systems also would benefit from stronger links established at the territorial level and increase the attention on the quality of the environment, leading to the adoption of benign practices, regenerating rather than impoverishing natural resources. Diversity is a key component of a resilient system, both in the biophysical sphere and in the social sphere: new business models, new knowledge-sharing networks, new markets. The three transitions would operate in synergy and contribute to the resilience of the whole food system and its preparation for a possible next emergency. Science can support policy making; however, science needs to be better embedded in society, to have a clear direction toward the grand challenges, to address the social, economic, behavioral spheres, to aim clearly at the common good. We need to re-think the conundrum between competition and cooperation in research, devising ways to boost the latter without sacrificing excellence. We need to improve the way knowledge is generated and shared and we need to ensure that information is accessible and unbiased by vested interests.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    COVIDSurg Collaborative; GlobalSurg Collaborative; A, M.; Abdelhamid, M. H. S.; Alhabdan, S.; Nekoval, V.; Nel, C.; Nel, D.; Nel, H.; Nelihela, P.; +190 more
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Italy, Italy, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Croatia, Netherlands, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy ...

    Abstract Background Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. Methods The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18–49, 50–69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. Results NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. Conclusion As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population. The aim of this study was to inform vaccination prioritization by modelling the impact of vaccination on elective inpatient surgery. The study found that patients aged at least 70 years needing elective surgery should be prioritized alongside other high-risk groups during early vaccination programmes. Once vaccines are rolled out to younger populations, prioritizing surgical patients is advantageous.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ismail Golgeci; Emre Yildis; Ulf Andersson;
    Country: Denmark

    This paper explores the rising tensions between efficiency and resilience in global value chains (GVCs) in the post-COVID-19 world and discusses their potential implications for managing and coordinating GVCs. It considers efficiency and resilience in GVCs in relation to each other and explores the possibility of tensions between the two concepts. Particularly, it is argued that, while efficiency and resilience in GVCs may be at odds with each other in the short-term, they are not necessarily mutually exclusive in the long run. The paper adds to the discussions of trade-offs involved in managing contemporary GVCs and offers a new perspective on the interplay between efficiency and resilience. Embedded in the discussion of resilience vis-à-vis efficiency, we also provide a long-term perspective to prepare for and deal with global pandemics – or other risks – in an increasingly interconnected world. We lay out decisions and steps involved in finding the balance between efficiency and resilience, as both need to be maintained concurrently over longer periods.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Anne Toft Ramsbøl; Birgitte Thylstrup; Esben Houborg; Maj Nygaard-Christensen;
    Country: Denmark

    Da Danmark gik i såkaldt ’lockdown’ i marts 2020, lukkede også en stor del af tilbud og indsatser på udsatte- og rusmiddelområdet ned. Denne artikel har fokus på, hvordan nedlukningen blev håndteret i kommuner, regioner og sociale organisationer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emilie Ghio; Jennifer L. L. Gant; Gert-Jan Boon; David Christoph Emke; Line Langkjaer; Eugenio Vaccari;
    Countries: Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom

    The COVID-19 crisis, which hit the world with full force in 2020, represents one of the greatest health and economic crises in recent history. The pandemic paralysed the world economy, forcing many countries around the globe to take emergency measures. Countries’ emergency responses to the crisis uncovered a tension between the continuous phenomenon of global economic interdependence and the tendency for nation-state governance during the crisis. Although this dichotomy was quite acute in the European Union (EU) at the onset of the pandemic – reflected overall by Member States’ preferences for national solutions over common multilateral solutions – governments eventually converged towards similar responses to the spread of the virus. These responses to the crisis included partial or total isolation of populations, travel bans, and the temporary closure of non-essential businesses. This so-called phenomenon of ‘copycat coronavirus policies’ was the result of regulatory emulation, which occurred spontaneously, with limited direct impetus from the EU. Our paper investigates whether insolvency and restructuring laws, policies, and measures followed a similar pattern. The study focuses on six selected European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK). From a methodological perspective, our contribution relies on a case study approach. Building on the findings of this case study, our paper, then, draws more general conclusions on the process of harmonisation across the EU. While the harmonisation of insolvency law in the European Union (EU) has been a top priority on the European institutions' agenda in the last decade, it is well known that this endeavour has been slow and has often met resistance from the Member States. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed that top-down harmonisation of insolvency (i.e., introduced at EU level) has been temporarily halted. The urgency to control or mitigate the economically and financially destructive effects of the pandemic has, nevertheless, forced European governments to adopt domestic strategies and laws in the area of insolvency. Interestingly, however, such measures show that insolvency and restructuring law responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, albeit largely uncoordinated, reflect a phenomenon of bottom-up harmonisation (i.e., introduced by Member States) indicating a convergence towards common approaches. This paper interrogates the insolvency law responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom). It uncovers the inadequacy of the EU's harmonisation language, and the limits of harmonisation strategies in insolvency and restructuring law. Finally, it promotes the formulation of a wider-encompassing definition of “legal harmonisation”.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
104 Research products, page 1 of 11
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Baekgaard; Kim Sass Mikkelsen; Jonas Krogh Madsen; Julian Christensen;
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | POAB (802244)

    State actions impact the lives of citizens in general and government benefit recipients in particular. However, little is known about whether experiences of psychological costs among benefit recipients can be relieved by reducing compliance demands in interactions with the state. Across three studies, we provide evidence that reducing demands causes relief. In a survey experiment, we show that psychological costs experienced by Danish unemployment insurance recipients change in response to information about actual reduced compliance demands. In two field studies, we exploit survey data collected around a sudden, exogenous shock (the COVID-19 lockdown of the Danish society in March 2020), which led to immediate reductions in compliance demands in Denmark's active labor market policies. We test whether two groups of benefit recipients experienced reduced psychological costs in response to these sudden reductions in compliance demands imposed by the state. Across all studies, we find that the reduction of compliance demands is associated with an increased sense of autonomy, and in two of the three studies, it is associated with reduced stress. Overall, our findings suggest that psychological costs experienced by benefit recipients are indeed affected by state actions in the form of compliance demands. © 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Public Management Research Association.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shujing Chen; Dingyu Zhang; Tianqi Zheng; Yongfu Yu; Jinjun Jiang;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractFew data are available on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill COVID-19 with thrombosis prophylaxis. This study retrospectively included 88 patients in the ICU with critically ill COVID-19 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China. All patients underwent compression ultrasonography for identifying DVT. Firth logistic regression was used to examine the association of DVT with sex, age, hypoalbuminemia, D-dimer, and SOFA score. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and SOFA score of 88 patients were 63 (55–71) years old and 5 (4–6), respectively. Despite all patients receiving guideline-recommended low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 46% (95% CI 35–56%). Proximal DVT was recognized in 9% (95% CI 3–15%) of the patients, while 46% (95% CI 35–56%) of patients had distal DVT. All of the proximal DVT combined with distal DVT. Risk factors of DVT extension occurred in all distal DVT patients. As Padua score ≥ 4 or IMPROVE score ≥ 2, 53% and 46% of patients had DVT, respectively. Mortality was higher in patients with acute DVT (30%) compared with non-DVT (17%), but did not reach statistical significance. Hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% CI 0.06–0.05, P = 0.001), higher SOFA score (OR per IQR, 2.07; 95% CI 1.38–3.39, P = 0.001), and elevated D-dimer (OR per IQR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.03–1.84, P = 0.029) were significant DVT risk factors in multivariable analyses. High incidence of DVT was identified in patients with critically ill COVID-19, despite the use of guideline-recommended pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The presence of hypoalbuminemia, higher SOFA score, and elevated D-dimer were significantly independent risk factors of DVT. More effective VTE prevention and management strategies may need to be addressed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carsten K. Bak; Jeanne Ø. Krammer; Kevin Dadaczynski; Okan Orkan; Jesper von Seelen; Christina Prinds; Lene M. Søbjerg; Heidi Klakk;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Countries: Denmark, Germany

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant infodemic have emphasized the importance of digital health literacy (DHL) to global public health research and practice. The aim of this study was to examine information-seeking behavior, the ability to find, understand and deal with health information among university college students in Denmark and/in addition we wanted to examine the impact of their close social network on students’ ability to find and understand health information. This research was carried out as part of the COVID-HL university student survey by using a uniform questionnaire consisting of elaborated scales. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted at University College South during 4 weeks in April and May 2020. To capture DHL, four subscales of the DHL instrument were adapted to the pandemic context. A total of 59.9% of the students have sufficient DHL—most students find it rather easy to find information and are satisfied with the information they find on the internet. However, some (28.1%) students find it difficult to judge the quality and reliability of the information. Students with a sufficient level of DHL are more likely to seek information through search engines and websites of official institutions, while students with a limited level of DHL more often use social media for health information. Students with sufficient DHL more often share health information and less often ask for support in their network

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacob Bodilsen; Peter Brønnum Nielsen; Mette Søgaard; Michael Dalager-Pedersen; Lasse Speiser; Troels Yndigegn; Henrik Nielsen; Torben Larsen; Flemming Skjøth;
    Country: Denmark

    Objective To determine the incidence of hospital admissions and associated mortality rates for non-covid medical conditions during the covid-19 pandemic.Design Nationwide, population based cohort study.Setting Denmark from 13 March 2019 to 27 January 2021.Participants All Danish residents gt;1 year of age.Main outcomes measures Population based healthcare registries that encompass the entire Danish population were used to compare hospital admission and mortality rates during the covid-19 pandemic (from 11 March 2020 to 27 January 2021) with the prepandemic baseline data (from 13 March 2019 to 10 March 2020). Hospital admissions were categorised as covid-19 when patients were assigned a diagnosis code for covid-19 within five days of admission. All patients were followed until migration, death, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Rate ratios for hospital admissions were computed using Poisson regression and were directly standardised using the Danish population on 1 January 2019 as reference. 30 day mortality rate ratios were examined by Cox regression, adjusted for age and sex, and covid-19 diagnosis was used as a competing risk.Results 5 753 179 residents were identified during 567.8 million person weeks of observation, with 1 113 705 hospital admissions among 675 447 people. Compared with the prepandemic baseline period (mean hospital admission rate 204.1 per 100 000/week), the overall hospital admission rate for non-covid-19 conditions decreased to 142.8 per 100 000/week (rate ratio 0.70, 95.66 to 0.74) after the first national lockdown, followed by a gradual return to baseline levels until the second national lockdown when it decreased to 158.3 per 100 000/week (0.78, 0.73 to 0.82). This pattern was mirrored for most major diagnosis groups except for non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, nervous system diseases, cancer, heart failure, sepsis, and non-covid-19 respiratory infections, which remained lower throughout the study period. Overall 30 day mortality rates were higher during the first national lockdown (mortality rate ratio 1.28, 95.23 to 1.32) and the second national lockdown (1.20, 1.16 to 1.24), and these results were similar across most major diagnosis groups. For non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis, the 30 day mortality rate ratios were also higher between lockdown periods.Conclusions Hospital admissions for all major non-covid-19 disease groups decreased during national lockdowns compared with the prepandemic baseline period. Additionally, mortality rates were higher overall and for patients admitted to hospital with conditions such as respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis. Increased attention towards management of serious non-covid-19 medical conditions is warranted. Objective: To determine the incidence of hospital admissions and associated mortality rates for non-covid medical conditions during the covid-19 pandemic. Design: Nationwide, population based cohort study. Setting: Denmark from 13 March 2019 to 27 January 2021. Participants: All Danish residents >1 year of age. Main outcomes measures: Population based healthcare registries that encompass the entire Danish population were used to compare hospital admission and mortality rates during the covid-19 pandemic (from 11 March 2020 to 27 January 2021) with the prepandemic baseline data (from 13 March 2019 to 10 March 2020). Hospital admissions were categorised as covid-19 when patients were assigned a diagnosis code for covid-19 within five days of admission. All patients were followed until migration, death, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Rate ratios for hospital admissions were computed using Poisson regression and were directly standardised using the Danish population on 1 January 2019 as reference. 30 day mortality rate ratios were examined by Cox regression, adjusted for age and sex, and covid-19 diagnosis was used as a competing risk. Results: 5 753 179 residents were identified during 567.8 million person weeks of observation, with 1 113 705 hospital admissions among 675 447 people. Compared with the prepandemic baseline period (mean hospital admission rate 204.1 per 100 000/week), the overall hospital admission rate for non-covid-19 conditions decreased to 142.8 per 100 000/week (rate ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.74) after the first national lockdown, followed by a gradual return to baseline levels until the second national lockdown when it decreased to 158.3 per 100 000/week (0.78, 0.73 to 0.82). This pattern was mirrored for most major diagnosis groups except for non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, nervous system diseases, cancer, heart failure, sepsis, and non-covid-19 respiratory infections, which remained lower throughout the study period. Overall 30 day mortality rates were higher during the first national lockdown (mortality rate ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.32) and the second national lockdown (1.20, 1.16 to 1.24), and these results were similar across most major diagnosis groups. For non-covid-19 respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis, the 30 day mortality rate ratios were also higher between lockdown periods. Conclusions: Hospital admissions for all major non-covid-19 disease groups decreased during national lockdowns compared with the prepandemic baseline period. Additionally, mortality rates were higher overall and for patients admitted to hospital with conditions such as respiratory diseases, cancer, pneumonia, and sepsis. Increased attention towards management of serious non-covid-19 medical conditions is warranted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bisoffi; Lilia Ahrné; Jessica Aschemann-Witzel; András Báldi; Kerstin Cuhls; Fabrice DeClerck; Fabrice DeClerck; Jessica Duncan; Henning Otte Hansen; Richard L. Hudson; +5 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Denmark, Denmark, Germany

    Three key transitions leading to a “safe and just” operating space, with a focus on food systems, emerged during the development of a Foresight study promoted by SCAR (Standing Committee on Agricultural Research1): (a) sustainable and healthy diets for all; (b) full circularity in the use of resources; (c) diversity as a key component of stable systems. As consequence of COVID-19, food emerged again as a central element of life, along with health, after decades in which food security was taken for granted, at least in most developed countries. The COVID-19 outbreak offered the opportunity for a reflection on the importance of resilience in emergencies. Sustainable and healthy diets for all, was shown, during the pandemic, to depend much more on social and economic conditions than on technical aspects of food production and processing. Agriculture and the agro-industry have now a potential to absorb, at least temporarily, workers laid out in other sectors; the pandemic could be an opportunity to re-think and re-value labor relationships in the sector as well as local productions and supply chains. A full circularity in food systems also would benefit from stronger links established at the territorial level and increase the attention on the quality of the environment, leading to the adoption of benign practices, regenerating rather than impoverishing natural resources. Diversity is a key component of a resilient system, both in the biophysical sphere and in the social sphere: new business models, new knowledge-sharing networks, new markets. The three transitions would operate in synergy and contribute to the resilience of the whole food system and its preparation for a possible next emergency. Science can support policy making; however, science needs to be better embedded in society, to have a clear direction toward the grand challenges, to address the social, economic, behavioral spheres, to aim clearly at the common good. We need to re-think the conundrum between competition and cooperation in research, devising ways to boost the latter without sacrificing excellence. We need to improve the way knowledge is generated and shared and we need to ensure that information is accessible and unbiased by vested interests.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    COVIDSurg Collaborative; GlobalSurg Collaborative; A, M.; Abdelhamid, M. H. S.; Alhabdan, S.; Nekoval, V.; Nel, C.; Nel, D.; Nel, H.; Nelihela, P.; +190 more
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Italy, Italy, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Croatia, Netherlands, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy ...

    Abstract Background Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. Methods The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18–49, 50–69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. Results NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. Conclusion As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population. The aim of this study was to inform vaccination prioritization by modelling the impact of vaccination on elective inpatient surgery. The study found that patients aged at least 70 years needing elective surgery should be prioritized alongside other high-risk groups during early vaccination programmes. Once vaccines are rolled out to younger populations, prioritizing surgical patients is advantageous.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ismail Golgeci; Emre Yildis; Ulf Andersson;
    Country: Denmark

    This paper explores the rising tensions between efficiency and resilience in global value chains (GVCs) in the post-COVID-19 world and discusses their potential implications for managing and coordinating GVCs. It considers efficiency and resilience in GVCs in relation to each other and explores the possibility of tensions between the two concepts. Particularly, it is argued that, while efficiency and resilience in GVCs may be at odds with each other in the short-term, they are not necessarily mutually exclusive in the long run. The paper adds to the discussions of trade-offs involved in managing contemporary GVCs and offers a new perspective on the interplay between efficiency and resilience. Embedded in the discussion of resilience vis-à-vis efficiency, we also provide a long-term perspective to prepare for and deal with global pandemics – or other risks – in an increasingly interconnected world. We lay out decisions and steps involved in finding the balance between efficiency and resilience, as both need to be maintained concurrently over longer periods.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Anne Toft Ramsbøl; Birgitte Thylstrup; Esben Houborg; Maj Nygaard-Christensen;
    Country: Denmark

    Da Danmark gik i såkaldt ’lockdown’ i marts 2020, lukkede også en stor del af tilbud og indsatser på udsatte- og rusmiddelområdet ned. Denne artikel har fokus på, hvordan nedlukningen blev håndteret i kommuner, regioner og sociale organisationer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emilie Ghio; Jennifer L. L. Gant; Gert-Jan Boon; David Christoph Emke; Line Langkjaer; Eugenio Vaccari;
    Countries: Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom

    The COVID-19 crisis, which hit the world with full force in 2020, represents one of the greatest health and economic crises in recent history. The pandemic paralysed the world economy, forcing many countries around the globe to take emergency measures. Countries’ emergency responses to the crisis uncovered a tension between the continuous phenomenon of global economic interdependence and the tendency for nation-state governance during the crisis. Although this dichotomy was quite acute in the European Union (EU) at the onset of the pandemic – reflected overall by Member States’ preferences for national solutions over common multilateral solutions – governments eventually converged towards similar responses to the spread of the virus. These responses to the crisis included partial or total isolation of populations, travel bans, and the temporary closure of non-essential businesses. This so-called phenomenon of ‘copycat coronavirus policies’ was the result of regulatory emulation, which occurred spontaneously, with limited direct impetus from the EU. Our paper investigates whether insolvency and restructuring laws, policies, and measures followed a similar pattern. The study focuses on six selected European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK). From a methodological perspective, our contribution relies on a case study approach. Building on the findings of this case study, our paper, then, draws more general conclusions on the process of harmonisation across the EU. While the harmonisation of insolvency law in the European Union (EU) has been a top priority on the European institutions' agenda in the last decade, it is well known that this endeavour has been slow and has often met resistance from the Member States. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed that top-down harmonisation of insolvency (i.e., introduced at EU level) has been temporarily halted. The urgency to control or mitigate the economically and financially destructive effects of the pandemic has, nevertheless, forced European governments to adopt domestic strategies and laws in the area of insolvency. Interestingly, however, such measures show that insolvency and restructuring law responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, albeit largely uncoordinated, reflect a phenomenon of bottom-up harmonisation (i.e., introduced by Member States) indicating a convergence towards common approaches. This paper interrogates the insolvency law responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom). It uncovers the inadequacy of the EU's harmonisation language, and the limits of harmonisation strategies in insolvency and restructuring law. Finally, it promotes the formulation of a wider-encompassing definition of “legal harmonisation”.