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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lembo, David; Poli, Giuseppe; Civra, Andrea;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reina Prieto, Jordi; López-Causape, Carla; Busquets, María; Morales, Carmen;

    Introducción: Los principales coronavirus humanos (HCoVs) causantes de infección respiratoria son el 229E, NL63 y OC43. Debido a la falta de información sobre este tipo de infecciones en nuestra comunidad, nos ha parecido importante conocer su impacto en la enfermedad respiratoria aguda. Material y método: En el período Febrero-Abril de 2014 se ha estudiado la presencia de los diferentes virus respiratorios en 950 muestras clínicas (aspirados nasofaríngeos o frotis faríngeos) peryenecientes a 674 niños (<15 años)(70.9%) y 276 adultos (29.1%). La detección viral se ha realizado mediante una RT-PCR comercial que detecta de forma simultánea y diferencial 16 virus distintos (Anyplex RV16). Resultados: El porcentaje global de detección de los HCoVs fue del 4.6% en todas las muestras estudiadas y del 7.8% (44 casos) en las muestras positivas. Se detectaron 20 OC43 (45.4%), 17 NL63 (38.6%) y 7 229E (15.9%). En 25 casos sólo detectó un HCoV (56.8%) y 19 casos (43.2%) la infección fue mixta. En estas infecciones los virus detectados fueron: rinovirus 11 casos (57.8%), virus gripal tipo B en 6 casos (31.5%), y adenovirus y VRS-A un caso cada uno. Los HCoVs se detectaron en 26 niños (59%) y 18 adultos (41%). De los 44 casos, 13 (29.5%) precisaron de ingreso hospitalario. Ningún paciente falleció como consecuencia de la infección respiratorio por el HCoV. Conclusiones: Este estudio demuestra la importancia de las infecciones respiratorias causadas por los coronavirus humanos, especialmente en niños. Introduction: The main human Coronavirus (HCoVs) involved in human respiratory tract infections are the 229E, NL63, and OC43. Due to the lack of information about these infections in our country, it seemed important to know its impact on acute respiratory disease. Material and Methods: In the period February-April 2014, we have studied the presence of different respiratory viruses in 950 samples (throat swabs and/or nasopharyngeal aspirates) belonging to 674 (70.9%) children (<15 years) and 276 adults (29.1%). The detection of respiratory viruses was performed using commercial automatic real-time PCR system (Anyplex RV16), detecting 16 different viruses. Results: The overall HCoV detected was 4.6% of all samples studied and 7.8% (44 cases) of the positive samples. The 44 HCoVs detected corresponded to 20 HCoV-OC43 (45.4%), 17 HCoV-NL63 (38.6%) and 7 HCoV-229E (15.9%). The HCoVs alone were detected in 25 cases (56.8%) and with other respiratory viruses in 19 (43.2%) cases (coinfections). In the mixed infections, rhinovirus was detected in 11 cases (57.8%), influenzavirus type B in 6 cases (31.5%), adenovirus in 1 case and RSV-A in 1 case. HCoVs were detected in the 26 children (59%) and 18 adults (41%). Of the 44 cases, 13 (29.5%) required hospital admission, No patients infected by HCoVs died as a direct result of respiratory tract infection. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of respiratory infections caused by HCoVs, especially in children

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biblioteca Digital d...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biblioteca Digital d...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Franzo, Giovanni; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Md Al Hasibuzzaman; Binbin Zhu; Rinki Kumari; Mohammad Arman Hossain; +4 Authors

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the situation of the world. In December 2019, an unknown variant of pneumonia disease occurred in Wuhan, China. On Jan 7, 2020, a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was announced in the throat swab sample of one patient in Wuhan. COVID-19 has spread quickly around the world, affecting millions of people. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus. This article review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathophysiological changes, clinical diagnosis, treatment procedure, and prognosis of COVID-19. A comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 through research will help control the disease and increase awareness in public and medical domains.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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  • �� �������������������� ������������������������������ (������) ������ �� ������������������ ���������������� (����) ���������� ������ ���������������������������� ���������� ������ ������������ ������ ������������������������ ������ ��������������������. ������������������������ ������������ ���� ������ �������������������������������� ������. ������������������������������ ������ ����������������, ����������, ������������������ ������ ���������� ���������������������� ������ �������������������� ���������������� ������ �������������������� �������������������� ���������� ���������������������� �������������� ��������������. ������ ���������������������� �������� �������� �������� �� ������ ��������������. �� �������������� �������������� ������ ������ �������� ���������������������� �������������� �������� ���� 1994 ������ ���� ���������������������������� ���������������� ������������������ ������ ������������ �� �������������������������� ������������������ ������ ������������, ������ ������������������������-������������������������������ ���������������� ������ ������. ������������������ ������ �� ������ ������ ����, �������� ������ ���������������������� ������������������ ������ ������������������ ���� ������ ������ ������������, �������� ���� 1990 ������������������ ���� �������������������� ������������ �������������������� �������� �������� ���� �������������������� ������������������. ������������, �������� ���� 2010 �������� ������ ������ �������� ��������, ���������������������� �������������� �������������� �������������������� ������ ������������������, ���� �������������������� ������ ������������������ ���������������������� ����������������. ������������������ ������ �������� �������������������� ������ ���������������� ���������������������������� ������������ ������ ������ ������������������ ������ ������������������ ������������������ ������ ������������ �������� ������������, �������� �������� ������ �������� ���������� �������� ���������������� ������ �������� ������. �������� ������������ �������� �������������������� ���� ���������� ������ ������������ �������������������� ������ ������������������ ������ ������ ������ ������ ���� ������ �������� ������ ���� ���� ������������ RT-PCR. ���������������� �������������� ������ ���������������� ������������������ ������������ ���� 20 ���������������� ������������ ���� �������������� �������������������� ������������������������ ������ ��������������. ���� ���������������� ���������������� �������������������� ���� ���� �������������� ������������ RT-PCR, ������������ �������� ������ �������� ������ �������������������������� ���� ������������. ������������ ������ �������� ������ ������������ ���������������������� ���� ������������ ������ ������ ���������������� ������ ������������ ������ ���� ���������������� �������� ������ �������� ������������ ���������������� �������������������������� ������������������, ���� ������������������������ �������������� ������ ���� ���������� ������ ������ ���������������� ������ ������������ ���������� ���������� ������ ������ ������ ������ ����. ������ �������� ������������ ������������, ������ ���������������������� ���� ������ ���������������������� �������������������� ���� ���������������� �������� ���� �������������������� ����������, ���� ������������ ���� �������������������� ������ ���� �������������������� ������ ������ ������ �������������� ������ ������ ����������. Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and epidemic diarrhea (PED) are two gastrointestinal diseases of pigs caused by coronaviruses. Transmission mainly occurs via the fecal-oral route. They are characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in newborn piglets with less impact on older pigs. These viruses do not infect other animal species or humans. The clinical significance of TGE was significantly reduced since 1994 due to the effective immune cross-protection initially induced by the porcine respiratory coronavirus, a mutant strain of TGEV. PED virus had also caused extensive epidemics throughout Europe, which were reduced after 1990. Nevertheless, since 2010, enormous economic losses due to a large number of PED outbreaks and epidemics was recorded in the US and China. Motivated by this, we started an extensive epidemiological research in order to record intestinal diseases of pigs in Greece, something that had never been performed. TGE and PED virus presence had been attempted with the RT-PCR method. Fecal samples from 5 different age groups of 20 pig greek farms were analyzed with the RT-PCR method. None of the samples was positive suggesting the absence of acute form of TGE and PED. Considering that no vaccinations against these coronaviruses had ever been performed, neither history of relative clinical infection had been recorded in the country, all imported animals must be checked for the absence of these viruses in order that epidemics on greek immune-na��ve animals should be avoided.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nosalskaya, Tatiana Nikolaevna; Martynov, Artur Viktorovich; Bomko, Tatiana Vasilievna;

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Structural basis of recognition of monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences by mammalian importin-\u03b111.Edited by K. Nagai . J Mol. Biol. 2000. 297. \u21165. \u0420. 1183\u20131194.", "Hodel M.R., Corbett A.H., Hodel A.E. Dissection of a Nuclear Localization Signal . J. Biol. Chem. 2000. 276. \u21162. \u0420. 1317\u20131325.", "Matsuura Y., Stewart M. Nup50/Npap60 function in nuclear protein import complex disassembly and importin recycling. EMBO J. 2005. 24. \u211621. \u0420. 3681\u20133689.", "Matsuura Y., Stewart M. Structural basis for the assembly of a nuclear export complex. Nature. 2004. 432. \u21167019. \u0420. 872\u2013877.", "Gilchrist D., Rexach M. Molecular Basis for the Rapid Dissociation of Nuclear Localization Signals from Karyopherin \u03b1 in the Nucleoplasm. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278. \u211651. \u0420. 51937\u201351949.", "Lange A., Mills R.E., Lange C.J., et al. Classical Nuclear Localization Signals: Definition, Function, and Interaction with Importin \u03b1. J Biol Chem. 2007. 282. \u21168. \u0420. 5101\u20135105", "Boulikas T. Putative Nuclear Localization Signals (NLS) in Protein Transcripti on Factors. J. Cell. Biochem. 1994. 55. \u0420. 32-58.", "Macara I.G. Transport into and out of the Nucleus. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2001. 65. \u21164. \u0420. 570-594.", "Whittaker G.R. Virus nuclear import . Advanced Drug Del. Rev. 2003. 55. \u0420. 733- 747.", "Jakob R. Electroporation-mediated delivery of nucleolar targeting sequences from Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsid protein . Prep. Biochem. 1995. 25. \u21163. \u0420. 99-117.", "Michel M.R., Elgizoli M., Dai Y., et al. Karyophilic properties of Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsid protein. J. Virol. 1990. 64. \u2116 10.\u0420. 5123-5131.", "Peranen J., Rikkonen M., Liljestrom P., Kaariainen L. Nuclear localisation of Semliki Forest virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP2 . J. Virol. 1990. 64. \u2116 8. \u0420.1888-1896.", "Favre D., Studer E., Michel M.R. Two nucleolar targeting signals present in the N-temrinal part of Semliki Forest virus capsid protein . Arch. Virol. 1994. 137. \u2116 1-2. \u0420. 149-155.", "Wengler G., Wurkner D., Wengler G. Identification of a sequence element in the alphavirus core protein which mediates interaction of cores with ribosomes and the disassembly of cores. Virol. 1992. 191. \u21162. \u0420 880-888.", "Fazakerley J.K., Boyd A., Mikkola M.L., Kaariainen L. A single amino acid change in the nuclear localisation sequence of the nsP2 protein affects the neurovirulence of semliki forest virus. J. Virol. 2002. 76. \u21161. \u2013\u0420. 392-396.", "Hiscox J.A. The interaction of animal cytoplasmic RNA viruses with the nucleus to facilitate replication . Virus Res. 2003. 951. \u2116 1-2. \u0420. 13\u201322.", "Wurm T., Chen H., Britton P. et al. Localisation to the nucleolus is a common feature of coronavirus nucleoproteins and the protein may disrupt host cell division. J. Virol. 2001. 75. \u211619. \u0420. 9345-9356.", "Tijms M.A., van der MeerY., SnijderE.J. Nuclear localisation of non-structural protein 1 and nucleocapsid protein of equine arteritis virus . J. Gen. Virol. 2002. 83. \u0420. 795-800.", "O'Neill R.E., Jaskunas R., Blobel G., et al. Nuclear Import of Influenza Virus RNA Can Be Mediated by Viral Nucleoprotein and Transport Factors Required for Protein Import. J. Biol. Chem. 1995. 273. \u211639. \u0420. 22701\u201322704.", "Cros J.F., Garc\u0131a-Sastre A., Palese P. An Unconventional NLS is Critical for the Nuclear Import of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein and Ribonucleoprotein . Traffic. 2005. 6. \u0420. 205\u2013213.", "Cunningham M.D., Cleaveland J., Nadler S.G. An intracellular targeted NLS peptide inhibitor of karyopherin \u03b1:NF-jB interactions . Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003. 300. \u0420. 403\u2013407.", "Ozawa M., Fujii K., Muramoto Y., et al. Contributions of Two Nuclear Localization Signals of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein to Viral Replication. J. Virol. 2007. 81. \u21161. \u0420. 30\u201341.", "Sun W.W.H., Pant\u00e9 Y.-H.B., N. Nuclear import of influenza A viral ribonucleoprotein complexes is mediated by two nuclear localization sequences on viral nucleoprotein . Virol. J. 2007. 4. \u211649. \u0420. 1-12.", "Gussow A.B., Auslander N., Faure G., et al. Genomic determinants of pathogenicity in SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020. \u0420. 1-7.", "You J. Subcellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein . J General Virol. 2005. 86. \u211612. \u0420. 3303\u20133310.", "McBride R., van Zyl M., Fielding B. The Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Is a Multifunctional Protein . Viruses. 2014. 6. \u21168. \u0420. 2991\u20133018.", "Hiscox J.A., Wurm T., Wilson L., et al. The Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Nucleoprotein Localizes to the Nucleolus J. Virol. 2001. 75. \u21161. \u0420. 506\u2013512.", "Timani K.A., Liao Q., Ye L., et al. Nuclear/nucleolar localization properties of C-terminal nucleocapsid protein of SARS \u0441oronavirus. Virus Res. 2005. 114. \u0420. 23\u201334.", "Xu W., Edwards M.R., Borek D.M., et al. Ebola Virus VP24 Targets a Unique NLS Binding Site on Karyopherin Alpha 5 to Selectively Compete with Nuclear Import of Phosphorylated STAT1. Cell Host Microb. 2014. 16. \u0420. 187\u2013200.", "Xing J., Wang S., Li Y., et al. Characterization of the subcellular localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins in living cells. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2010. 200. \u21161. \u0420. 61\u201368.", "Cai M., Huang Z., Liao Z., et al. Characterization of the subcellular localization and nuclear import molecular mechanisms of herpes simplex virus 1 UL2. Biol. Chem. 2017. 398. \u21164. \u0420. 1-17.", "Abaitua F., Hollinshead M., Bolstad M., et al. A Nuclear Localization Signal in Herpesvirus Protein VP1-2 Is Essential for Infection via Capsid Routing to the Nuclear Pore. J. Virol. 2012. 86. \u211617. \u0420. 8998\u20139014.", "Li M., Zou X., Wang Y., et al . The nuclear localization signal-mediated nuclear targeting of herpes simplex virus 1 early protein UL2 is important for efficient viral production. AGING. 2020. 12. \u21163. \u0420. 2921-2938.", "Neufeldt C.J., Joyce M.A., Levin A., et al. Hepatitis C virus-induced cytoplasmic organelles use the nuclear transport machinery to establish an environment conducive to virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2013. 9. \u211610. \u0420. 1-16.", "Levin A, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Loyter A. Over-expression of the HIV-1 Rev promotes death of nondividing eukaryotic cells . Virus Genes. 2010. 40. \u0420. 341\u2013346.", "Levin A, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Loyter A. Transportin 3 and importin alpha are required for effective nuclear import of HIV-1 integrase in virus-infected cells . Nucleus. 2010. 1. \u0420. 422\u2013431.", "Levin A., Neufeldt C.J., Pang D., et al. Functional Characterization of Nuclear Localization and Export Signals in Hepatitis C Virus Proteins and Their Role in the Membranous Web. PLoS ONE. 2014. 9. \u211612. \u0420. 1-36.", "Whittaker G.R., Helenius A. Nuclear Import and Export of Viruses and Virus Genomes. . Virol. 1998. 246. \u21161. \u0420. 1\u201323."]} The review provides data about nuclear localization signal peptides (NLS) and their function in the cell, incl. with a viral infection process. The binding, penetration, assembly, and budding of viruses are currently being intensively studied in many systems. However, the stages of nuclear transport during the penetration and release of the virus have remained practically unexplored. NLS were first identified in the large T antigen virus SV40 and from nucleoplasmin, and then were identified in a large number of proteins. They usually contain short base peptides includes lysine or arginine residues in the form of mono- or bipartite signals. NLSs include the "pat4" motif, which consists of a contiguous stretch four essential amino acids (arginine and lysine). Both coronaviruses and arteriviruses show similar genomic organization and belong to Nidovirales. Although both families encode nucleoproteins (N-proteins), the main function of which is to bind viral RNA, NLS-containing proteins has different sizes and do not have significant homology. The review provides the characteristics and structure of NLS for many viral proteins, and shows their role in the pathogenicity of viruses.

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  • Authors: Macintyre, Georgina;

    Bibliography: p. 149-182.

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    Authors: Pfister, Rodo;

    Contents Coronaviruses in general. 3 SARS-Cov • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. 6 Traditional Chinese medicine. 11 MERS-CoV • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. 21 SARSr-CoV • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses. 23 COVID-19 • SARS-CoV-2 • 2019-nCoV. 31 Case reporting websites. 31 Daily reports WHO • NHC PRC • Health Commission of Hubei Province. 34 Bibliographies • Living Papers. 34 Syllabi • Teaching Tools. 34 COVID-19 Research & Development. 35 Biomedical, epidemiological, genetic studies. 36 Websites collecting scientific information.. 36 Virology • Phylogeny and Genome of SARS-like betacoronaviruses. 38 Epidemiology • Transmission • Modelling • Testing. 65 Clinical disease • pathology • pathophysiology. 82 Treatment options • vaccines. 92 Retractions • Withdrawals. 98 Guidelines • Guidance for COVID-19. 100 Traditional Chinese medicine. 102 Press reports. 108 Updating thematic lists of news outlets. 108 News articles. 109 Sociocultural reactions • arts • social sciences • social anthropology. 129 Pandemic memes. 136 Rumours • disinformation • propaganda war. 139 Anti-racist stance.. 139 Notification on false information.. 139 Discussion of propaganda articles • Infodemic • Desinformation.. 140 Enfer • Propaganda articles. 143

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  • Authors: Palacios, Gustavo F.; Jabado, Omar J.; Briese, Thomas; Renwick, Neil; +1 Authors

    Background: Several coronaviruses establish persistent infections in vitro and in vivo, however it is unknown whether persistence is a feature of the severe acute respiratory syndorme coronavirus (SARS-CoV) life cycle. This study was conducted to investigate viral persistence. Methods: We inoculated confluent monolayers of Vero cells with SARS-CoV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 TCID50 and passaged the remaining cells every 4 to 8 days for a total of 11 passages. Virus was titrated at each passage by limited dilution assay and nucleocapsid antigen was detected by Western blot and immunofluoresence assays. The presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells was assessed by electron microscopy. Changes in viral genomic sequences during persistent infection were examined by DNA sequencing. Results: Cytopathic effect was extensive after initial inoculation but diminished with serial passages. Infectious virus was detected after each passage and viral growth curves were identical for parental virus stock and virus obtained from passage 11 cells. Nucleocapsid antigen was detected in the majority of cells after initial inoculation but in only 10%-40% of cells at passages 2-11. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells. Sequence analysis at passage 11 revealed fixed mutations in the spike (S) gene and ORFs 7a-8b but not in the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Conclusions: SARS-CoV can establish a persistent infection in vitro. The mechanism for viral persistence is consistent with the formation of a carrier culture whereby a limited number of cells are infected with each round of virus replication and release. Persistence is associated with selected mutations in the SARS-CoV genome. This model may provide insight into SARS-related lung pathology and mechanisms by which humans and animals can serve as reservoirs for infection.

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    Authors: PIMEComerç;

    Aquest document pretén ser una eina útil per al dia a dia dels membres de la Xarxa BCN Anti-rumors, d’acord amb el compromís de PIMEC Comerç de proveir la Xarxa de materials específics en l’àmbit del comerç. Forma part de la col·lecció 'Nosaltres també fem ciutat', de PIMEC Comerç, amb el suport de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona.

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    Authors: Lembo, David; Poli, Giuseppe; Civra, Andrea;
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    Authors: Reina Prieto, Jordi; López-Causape, Carla; Busquets, María; Morales, Carmen;

    Introducción: Los principales coronavirus humanos (HCoVs) causantes de infección respiratoria son el 229E, NL63 y OC43. Debido a la falta de información sobre este tipo de infecciones en nuestra comunidad, nos ha parecido importante conocer su impacto en la enfermedad respiratoria aguda. Material y método: En el período Febrero-Abril de 2014 se ha estudiado la presencia de los diferentes virus respiratorios en 950 muestras clínicas (aspirados nasofaríngeos o frotis faríngeos) peryenecientes a 674 niños (<15 años)(70.9%) y 276 adultos (29.1%). La detección viral se ha realizado mediante una RT-PCR comercial que detecta de forma simultánea y diferencial 16 virus distintos (Anyplex RV16). Resultados: El porcentaje global de detección de los HCoVs fue del 4.6% en todas las muestras estudiadas y del 7.8% (44 casos) en las muestras positivas. Se detectaron 20 OC43 (45.4%), 17 NL63 (38.6%) y 7 229E (15.9%). En 25 casos sólo detectó un HCoV (56.8%) y 19 casos (43.2%) la infección fue mixta. En estas infecciones los virus detectados fueron: rinovirus 11 casos (57.8%), virus gripal tipo B en 6 casos (31.5%), y adenovirus y VRS-A un caso cada uno. Los HCoVs se detectaron en 26 niños (59%) y 18 adultos (41%). De los 44 casos, 13 (29.5%) precisaron de ingreso hospitalario. Ningún paciente falleció como consecuencia de la infección respiratorio por el HCoV. Conclusiones: Este estudio demuestra la importancia de las infecciones respiratorias causadas por los coronavirus humanos, especialmente en niños. Introduction: The main human Coronavirus (HCoVs) involved in human respiratory tract infections are the 229E, NL63, and OC43. Due to the lack of information about these infections in our country, it seemed important to know its impact on acute respiratory disease. Material and Methods: In the period February-April 2014, we have studied the presence of different respiratory viruses in 950 samples (throat swabs and/or nasopharyngeal aspirates) belonging to 674 (70.9%) children (<15 years) and 276 adults (29.1%). The detection of respiratory viruses was performed using commercial automatic real-time PCR system (Anyplex RV16), detecting 16 different viruses. Results: The overall HCoV detected was 4.6% of all samples studied and 7.8% (44 cases) of the positive samples. The 44 HCoVs detected corresponded to 20 HCoV-OC43 (45.4%), 17 HCoV-NL63 (38.6%) and 7 HCoV-229E (15.9%). The HCoVs alone were detected in 25 cases (56.8%) and with other respiratory viruses in 19 (43.2%) cases (coinfections). In the mixed infections, rhinovirus was detected in 11 cases (57.8%), influenzavirus type B in 6 cases (31.5%), adenovirus in 1 case and RSV-A in 1 case. HCoVs were detected in the 26 children (59%) and 18 adults (41%). Of the 44 cases, 13 (29.5%) required hospital admission, No patients infected by HCoVs died as a direct result of respiratory tract infection. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of respiratory infections caused by HCoVs, especially in children

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    Authors: Md Al Hasibuzzaman; Binbin Zhu; Rinki Kumari; Mohammad Arman Hossain; +4 Authors

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the situation of the world. In December 2019, an unknown variant of pneumonia disease occurred in Wuhan, China. On Jan 7, 2020, a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was announced in the throat swab sample of one patient in Wuhan. COVID-19 has spread quickly around the world, affecting millions of people. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus. This article review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathophysiological changes, clinical diagnosis, treatment procedure, and prognosis of COVID-19. A comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 through research will help control the disease and increase awareness in public and medical domains.

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  • �� �������������������� ������������������������������ (������) ������ �� ������������������ ���������������� (����) ���������� ������ ���������������������������� ���������� ������ ������������ ������ ������������������������ ������ ��������������������. ������������������������ ������������ ���� ������ �������������������������������� ������. ������������������������������ ������ ����������������, ����������, ������������������ ������ ���������� ���������������������� ������ �������������������� ���������������� ������ �������������������� �������������������� ���������� ���������������������� �������������� ��������������. ������ ���������������������� �������� �������� �������� �� ������ ��������������. �� �������������� �������������� ������ ������ �������� ���������������������� �������������� �������� ���� 1994 ������ ���� ���������������������������� ���������������� ������������������ ������ ������������ �� �������������������������� ������������������ ������ ������������, ������ ������������������������-������������������������������ ���������������� ������ ������. ������������������ ������ �� ������ ������ ����, �������� ������ ���������������������� ������������������ ������ ������������������ ���� ������ ������ ������������, �������� ���� 1990 ������������������ ���� �������������������� ������������ �������������������� �������� �������� ���� �������������������� ������������������. ������������, �������� ���� 2010 �������� ������ ������ �������� ��������, ���������������������� �������������� �������������� �������������������� ������ ������������������, ���� �������������������� ������ ������������������ ���������������������� ����������������. ������������������ ������ �������� �������������������� ������ ���������������� ���������������������������� ������������ ������ ������ ������������������ ������ ������������������ ������������������ ������ ������������ �������� ������������, �������� �������� ������ �������� ���������� �������� ���������������� ������ �������� ������. �������� ������������ �������� �������������������� ���� ���������� ������ ������������ �������������������� ������ ������������������ ������ ������ ������ ������ ���� ������ �������� ������ ���� ���� ������������ RT-PCR. ���������������� �������������� ������ ���������������� ������������������ ������������ ���� 20 ���������������� ������������ ���� �������������� �������������������� ������������������������ ������ ��������������. ���� ���������������� ���������������� �������������������� ���� ���� �������������� ������������ RT-PCR, ������������ �������� ������ �������� ������ �������������������������� ���� ������������. ������������ ������ �������� ������ ������������ ���������������������� ���� ������������ ������ ������ ���������������� ������ ������������ ������ ���� ���������������� �������� ������ �������� ������������ ���������������� �������������������������� ������������������, ���� ������������������������ �������������� ������ ���� ���������� ������ ������ ���������������� ������ ������������ ���������� ���������� ������ ������ ������ ������ ����. ������ �������� ������������ ������������, ������ ���������������������� ���� ������ ���������������������� �������������������� ���� ���������������� �������� ���� �������������������� ����������, ���� ������������ ���� �������������������� ������ ���� �������������������� ������ ������ ������ �������������� ������ ������ ����������. Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and epidemic diarrhea (PED) are two gastrointestinal diseases of pigs caused by coronaviruses. Transmission mainly occurs via the fecal-oral route. They are characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in newborn piglets with less impact on older pigs. These viruses do not infect other animal species or humans. The clinical significance of TGE was significantly reduced since 1994 due to the effective immune cross-protection initially induced by the porcine respiratory coronavirus, a mutant strain of TGEV. PED virus had also caused extensive epidemics throughout Europe, which were reduced after 1990. Nevertheless, since 2010, enormous economic losses due to a large number of PED outbreaks and epidemics was recorded in the US and China. Motivated by this, we started an extensive epidemiological research in order to record intestinal diseases of pigs in Greece, something that had never been performed. TGE and PED virus presence had been attempted with the RT-PCR method. Fecal samples from 5 different age groups of 20 pig greek farms were analyzed with the RT-PCR method. None of the samples was positive suggesting the absence of acute form of TGE and PED. Considering that no vaccinations against these coronaviruses had ever been performed, neither history of relative clinical infection had been recorded in the country, all imported animals must be checked for the absence of these viruses in order that epidemics on greek immune-na��ve animals should be avoided.

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    Authors: Nosalskaya, Tatiana Nikolaevna; Martynov, Artur Viktorovich; Bomko, Tatiana Vasilievna;

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However, the stages of nuclear transport during the penetration and release of the virus have remained practically unexplored. NLS were first identified in the large T antigen virus SV40 and from nucleoplasmin, and then were identified in a large number of proteins. They usually contain short base peptides includes lysine or arginine residues in the form of mono- or bipartite signals. NLSs include the "pat4" motif, which consists of a contiguous stretch four essential amino acids (arginine and lysine). Both coronaviruses and arteriviruses show similar genomic organization and belong to Nidovirales. Although both families encode nucleoproteins (N-proteins), the main function of which is to bind viral RNA, NLS-containing proteins has different sizes and do not have significant homology. The review provides the characteristics and structure of NLS for many viral proteins, and shows their role in the pathogenicity of viruses.

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