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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani; Dimah Mezher Al-Ani;

    Several years ago, China and the United States of America began experimenting with the coronavirus, which lives in the bat. It is not known until now how the virus spread and how it extended to all countries of the world. However, it is certain that this virus first appeared and spread was at the end of 2019 and in the Chinese city of Wuhan, especially in markets close to laboratories that are working on this virus. At the beginning of the year 2020, this virus began to spread very widely all over the world and began killing thousands of people every day. The world economy was destroyed until the World Health Organization considered it a pandemic. As for the research aspect, the researchers started the research work on this pandemic from many aspects, including medical, statistical, managerial, healthcare, and others. A statistical analysis depends many key factors that have been studied. This study was conducted on April 11, 2020, where a large number of research papers were downloaded using the keywords coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, which were applied in the Sciencedirect library that was examined on 100 research papers only. The obtained results indicated that most of the research papers that worked on the subject of COVID-19 confirmed that this virus infects the human respiratory system, which in turn leads to shortness of breath and death. Here, it must be noted that the human immune system has a major role in the process of overcoming this virus and gradual recovery. The obtained analysis indicated that the main fields of coronavirus are: Medicine 42%, statistics 21%, healthcare 19%, and management 18%. Through this study, it became clear that China is the first country in terms of the number of researchers and also in terms of the number of research papers related to the COVID-19.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UHD Journal of Scien...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UHD Journal of Scien...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Mattiuzzi, Camilla;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Riccardo Nocini; Giuseppe Lippi; Camilla Mattiuzzi;

    Abstract Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that the rate of cracked teeth managed in endodontists’ practices has considerably increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared to the period before.Methods: We conducted an electronic search in Google Trends, using the search term “Cracked Teeth”, with the geographical area set to either “US” or “UK” and the search period comprised between July 2017 and July 2022. The weekly Google Trends score for “Cracked Teeth”, which mirrors the popularity of this search term in the countries, was downloaded into a Microsoft Excel file, and the difference in the volume Google searches for “Cracked Teeth” in both countries were compared between pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods.Results: The median value of weekly Google Trends score for “Cracked Teeth” was found to be significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic both in the US (43 with interquartile range [IQR] 37-53 vs. 38 with IQR 32-45; +13% and p<0.001) and UK (28 with IQR 18-42 vs. 25 with IQR 17-33; +12% and p=0.001), compared to the homologous period beforeConclusion: The results of our infodemiological analysis provide a strong support to data earlier published, suggesting that the burden of cracked teeth may have significantly increased both in the US and UK during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Dental Sciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Dental Sciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
      Preprint . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://redcross.rep...arrow_drop_down
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    https://redcross.repo.nii.ac.j...
    Research . 2020
    Data sources: JAIRO
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      https://redcross.repo.nii.ac.j...
      Research . 2020
      Data sources: JAIRO
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    COVID-NMA is an international research initiative supported by the WHO and Cochrane. We provide a living mapping of COVID-19 trials available through interactive data visualizations. We are also conducting living evidence synthesis on preventive interventions, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 to assist decision makers.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Eugenevna Ziganshina, Liliya; Abakumova, Tatyana; Hoyle, Charles HV;

    Background: Cerebrolysin is a mixture of low‐molecular‐weight peptides and amino acids derived from porcine brain that has potential neuroprotective properties. It is widely used in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in Russia, Eastern Europe, China, and other Asian and post‐Soviet countries. This is an update of a review first published in 2010 and last updated in 2017. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of Cerebrolysin for treating acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, with Science Citation Index, LILACS, OpenGrey, and a number of Russian databases in October 2019. We also searched reference lists, ongoing trials registers, and conference proceedings. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Cerebrolysin, started within 48 hours of stroke onset and continued for any length of time, with placebo or no treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, extracted data, and applied GRADE criteria to the evidence. Main results: Seven RCTs (1601 participants) met the inclusion criteria of the review. In this update we re‐evaluated risk of bias through identification, examination, and evaluation of study protocols and judged it to be low, unclear, or high across studies: unclear for all domains in one study, and unclear for selective outcome reporting across all studies; low for blinding of participants and personnel in four studies and unclear in the remaining three; low for blinding of outcome assessors in three studies and unclear in four studies. We judged risk of bias to be low in two studies and unclear in the remaining five studies for generation of allocation sequence; low in one study and unclear in six studies for allocation concealment; and low in one study, unclear in one study, and high in the remaining five studies for incomplete outcome data. The manufacturer of Cerebrolysin supported four multicentre studies, either totally, or by providing Cerebrolysin and placebo, randomisation codes, research grants, or statisticians. We judged three studies to be at high risk of other bias and the remaining four studies to be at unclear risk of other bias. All‐cause death: we extracted data from six trials (1517 participants). Cerebrolysin probably results in little to no difference in all‐cause death: risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.32 (6 trials, 1517 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). None of the included trials reported on poor functional outcome defined as death or dependence at the end of the follow‐up period or early death (within two weeks of stroke onset), or time to restoration of capacity for work and quality of life. Only one trial clearly reported on the cause of death: cerebral infarct (four in the Cerebrolysin and two in the placebo group), heart failure (two in the Cerebrolysin and one in the placebo group), pulmonary embolism (two in the placebo group), and pneumonia (one in the placebo group). Serious adverse events (SAEs): Cerebrolysin probably results in little to no difference in the total number of people with SAEs (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.65, 4 RCTs, 1435 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). This comprised fatal SAEs (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.38) and an increase in the total number of people with non‐fatal SAEs (RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 4.55, P = 0.047, 4 trials, 1435 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). In the subgroup of dosing schedule 30 mL for 10 days (cumulative dose 300 mL), the increase was more prominent: RR 2.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 6.66, P = 0.01 (2 trials, 1189 participants). Total number of people with adverse events: four trials reported on this outcome. Cerebrolysin may result in little to no difference in the total number of people with adverse events: RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.10, P = 0.90, 4 trials, 1435 participants, low‐quality evidence. Non‐death attrition: evidence from six trials involving 1517 participants suggests that Cerebrolysin results in little to no difference in non‐death attrition, with 96 out of 764 Cerebrolysin‐treated participants and 117 out of 753 placebo‐treated participants being lost to follow‐up for reasons other than death (very low‐quality evidence). Authors' conclusions: Moderate‐quality evidence indicates that Cerebrolysin probably has little or no beneficial effect on preventing all‐cause death in acute ischaemic stroke, or on the total number of people with serious adverse events. Moderate‐quality evidence also indicates a potential increase in non‐fatal serious adverse events with Cerebrolysin use.

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    Este lineamiento ha sido desarrollado en cumplimiento con los criterios técnicos establecidos en la Normativa Jurídica, las Normas técnicas institucionales y aquellas que se han definido mediante los Decretos Ejecutivos emitidos por el Poder Ejecutivo en los preparativos y respuesta ante la emergencia por COVID-19. Está sujeto a ser actualizada permanentemente con el objeto de que responda en todo momento a las necesidades y exigencias actuales.

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  • Authors: Christophers, Briana;

    There are sparse patient-level data available for children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), so this systematic literature review analyzed data on individual pediatric patients rather than aggregated data in broad age groups.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani; Dimah Mezher Al-Ani;

    Several years ago, China and the United States of America began experimenting with the coronavirus, which lives in the bat. It is not known until now how the virus spread and how it extended to all countries of the world. However, it is certain that this virus first appeared and spread was at the end of 2019 and in the Chinese city of Wuhan, especially in markets close to laboratories that are working on this virus. At the beginning of the year 2020, this virus began to spread very widely all over the world and began killing thousands of people every day. The world economy was destroyed until the World Health Organization considered it a pandemic. As for the research aspect, the researchers started the research work on this pandemic from many aspects, including medical, statistical, managerial, healthcare, and others. A statistical analysis depends many key factors that have been studied. This study was conducted on April 11, 2020, where a large number of research papers were downloaded using the keywords coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, which were applied in the Sciencedirect library that was examined on 100 research papers only. The obtained results indicated that most of the research papers that worked on the subject of COVID-19 confirmed that this virus infects the human respiratory system, which in turn leads to shortness of breath and death. Here, it must be noted that the human immune system has a major role in the process of overcoming this virus and gradual recovery. The obtained analysis indicated that the main fields of coronavirus are: Medicine 42%, statistics 21%, healthcare 19%, and management 18%. Through this study, it became clear that China is the first country in terms of the number of researchers and also in terms of the number of research papers related to the COVID-19.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UHD Journal of Scien...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Mattiuzzi, Camilla;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Riccardo Nocini; Giuseppe Lippi; Camilla Mattiuzzi;

    Abstract Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that the rate of cracked teeth managed in endodontists’ practices has considerably increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared to the period before.Methods: We conducted an electronic search in Google Trends, using the search term “Cracked Teeth”, with the geographical area set to either “US” or “UK” and the search period comprised between July 2017 and July 2022. The weekly Google Trends score for “Cracked Teeth”, which mirrors the popularity of this search term in the countries, was downloaded into a Microsoft Excel file, and the difference in the volume Google searches for “Cracked Teeth” in both countries were compared between pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods.Results: The median value of weekly Google Trends score for “Cracked Teeth” was found to be significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic both in the US (43 with interquartile range [IQR] 37-53 vs. 38 with IQR 32-45; +13% and p<0.001) and UK (28 with IQR 18-42 vs. 25 with IQR 17-33; +12% and p=0.001), compared to the homologous period beforeConclusion: The results of our infodemiological analysis provide a strong support to data earlier published, suggesting that the burden of cracked teeth may have significantly increased both in the US and UK during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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    Journal of Dental Sciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Dental Sciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
      Preprint . 2022
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    https://redcross.repo.nii.ac.j...
    Research . 2020
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    COVID-NMA is an international research initiative supported by the WHO and Cochrane. We provide a living mapping of COVID-19 trials available through interactive data visualizations. We are also conducting living evidence synthesis on preventive interventions, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 to assist decision makers.

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    Authors: Eugenevna Ziganshina, Liliya; Abakumova, Tatyana; Hoyle, Charles HV;

    Background: Cerebrolysin is a mixture of low‐molecular‐weight peptides and amino acids derived from porcine brain that has potential neuroprotective properties. It is widely used in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in Russia, Eastern Europe, China, and other Asian and post‐Soviet countries. This is an update of a review first published in 2010 and last updated in 2017. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of Cerebrolysin for treating acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, with Science Citation Index, LILACS, OpenGrey, and a number of Russian databases in October 2019. We also searched reference lists, ongoing trials registers, and conference proceedings. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Cerebrolysin, started within 48 hours of stroke onset and continued for any length of time, with placebo or no treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, extracted data, and applied GRADE criteria to the evidence. Main results: Seven RCTs (1601 participants) met the inclusion criteria of the review. In this update we re‐evaluated risk of bias through identification, examination, and evaluation of study protocols and judged it to be low, unclear, or high across studies: unclear for all domains in one study, and unclear for selective outcome reporting across all studies; low for blinding of participants and personnel in four studies and unclear in the remaining three; low for blinding of outcome assessors in three studies and unclear in four studies. We judged risk of bias to be low in two studies and unclear in the remaining five studies for generation of allocation sequence; low in one study and unclear in six studies for allocation concealment; and low in one study, unclear in one study, and high in the remaining five studies for incomplete outcome data. The manufacturer of Cerebrolysin supported four multicentre studies, either totally, or by providing Cerebrolysin and placebo, randomisation codes, research grants, or statisticians. We judged three studies to be at high risk of other bias and the remaining four studies to be at unclear risk of other bias. All‐cause death: we extracted data from six trials (1517 participants). Cerebrolysin probably results in little to no difference in all‐cause death: risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.32 (6 trials, 1517 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). None of the included trials reported on poor functional outcome defined as death or dependence at the end of the follow‐up period or early death (within two weeks of stroke onset), or time to restoration of capacity for work and quality of life. Only one trial clearly reported on the cause of death: cerebral infarct (four in the Cerebrolysin and two in the placebo group), heart failure (two in the Cerebrolysin and one in the placebo group), pulmonary embolism (two in the placebo group), and pneumonia (one in the placebo group). Serious adverse events (SAEs): Cerebrolysin probably results in little to no difference in the total number of people with SAEs (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.65, 4 RCTs, 1435 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). This comprised fatal SAEs (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.38) and an increase in the total number of people with non‐fatal SAEs (RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 4.55, P = 0.047, 4 trials, 1435 participants, moderate‐quality evidence). In the subgroup of dosing schedule 30 mL for 10 days (cumulative dose 300 mL), the increase was more prominent: RR 2.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 6.66, P = 0.01 (2 trials, 1189 participants). Total number of people with adverse events: four trials reported on this outcome. Cerebrolysin may result in little to no difference in the total number of people with adverse events: RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.10, P = 0.90, 4 trials, 1435 participants, low‐quality evidence. Non‐death attrition: evidence from six trials involving 1517 participants suggests that Cerebrolysin results in little to no difference in non‐death attrition, with 96 out of 764 Cerebrolysin‐treated participants and 117 out of 753 placebo‐treated participants being lost to follow‐up for reasons other than death (very low‐quality evidence). Authors' conclusions: Moderate‐quality evidence indicates that Cerebrolysin probably has little or no beneficial effect on preventing all‐cause death in acute ischaemic stroke, or on the total number of people with serious adverse events. Moderate‐quality evidence also indicates a potential increase in non‐fatal serious adverse events with Cerebrolysin use.

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