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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ranke, Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; Despina Tougianidou; Michael B.;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

  • Publication . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shaheen, Ibraheem Theeb; Kurdi, Yahya Nazem;
    Publisher: Maltepe Üniversitesi
    Country: Turkey

    The Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, is a highly pathogenic β- coronavirus that infects humans through air transmission remotely. The most critical step in Early Diagnosis is to treat the infection. The Diagnostic methods include nasal swab, rectal swab recently used in China, Bronchio-alveolar leavage, chest x-ray, CT-san, Ultrasound, viral culture, serology, and molecular methods. CRISPR-based method is used to diagnose and treat the infection. Presence of IgG and IgM in blood examination [1]. Also a viral Gene detection, human antibody detection and viral antigen, amidst the viral gene detection by the RT-PCR is the most a ested technique [2]. Antiviral Inhibitors of the spike proteins of SARS and MERS, favipiravir, Azithromycin, antipyretics, α- interferon, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids and interleukins inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors and EK1 peptide are the therapeutic ways for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine which was the treatment method for malaria has shown results in the SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Using and oxygen support can assuage the symptoms effectively [1]. A research was performed on the observation techniques and quantitative computable conviction methods of chloroquine and its related metabolites. Azithromycin is given with Hydroxychloroquine as a combination for treatment and anticoagulants for prevention of further complications [3]. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral characteristics immunologically in vitro. These findings show that these drugs have potency in treatment. But they have serious side effects, ranging from psychiatric to sudden death. So, favipiravir is the best drug of choice currently along with anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis [3][4].

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2022
    Authors: 
    López-Ortiz, Geovani;
    Publisher: Open Science Framework

    Background: from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, new SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that potentially affect transmissibility, severity, and evasion of neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. In this context, the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 variants on clinical outcomes is analyzed. Methods: a systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. Two databases (PubMed and ScienceDirect) were searched for original articles published from January 1, 2020 to November 23, 2021.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; +2 more
    Publisher: MDPI

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

  • English
    Authors: 
    BARY, Khadija;
    Publisher: Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, first appeared in late 2019 in China. Given its rapid spread and pathogenic potential, the world urgently needs a vaccine that is the only way to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on public health and the economy. Currently, scientists are trying to rapidly develop new candidate vaccines. A variety of vaccine approaches and formulations for targeting the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are being pursued, including nucleic acid vaccines (mARN). Here we give a reminder about vaccination in general and we report the results of some studies conducted on the evaluation of the mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology, Vol. 2, No 2 (2020): July - December

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access Turkish
    Authors: 
    Dayan, Saim;
    Publisher: Dicle Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi
    Country: Turkey

    Günümüzdeki on büyük halk sağlığı başarısından en önemlisi aşılamadır. Aşılama, hastalığa karşı bireysel korumayı sağlamanın yanı sıra aynı zamanda bir toplumsal dayanışma örneğidir. Bir toplumda aşı ile bağışıklama oranı %85-95 gibi yüksek düzeyde ise aşılanmamış kırılgan kesimler de korunmuş olur. COVID-19 hastalığına neden olan SARS-CoV-2 pandemisi, alınan tüm bireysel ve ulusal önlemlere rağmen yeni mutasyonlarla yayılmaya devam etmektedir. Henüz etkili bir antiviral ilaç mevcut olmadığından hastalıkla mücadelenin şimdilik en önemli yöntemi aşılamadır. Bir yıl gibi kısa sürede COVID-19 aşıları geliştirilmiş ve acil kullanım onayı ile küresel ölçekte kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bir pandemi aşısının bu kadar kısa sürede bulunmuş olması insanlık adına çok büyük bir başarıdır. Halen 60 ülkede preklinik çalışmalar da dahil olmak üzere toplam 408 aşı çalışması mevcuttur. Klinik faz çalışmaları aşamasında olan aşı sayısı 138’dir (Faz 1: 36, Faz 2: 65, Faz 3: 31). Klinik faz çalışmaları aşamasında olan 6 aşı çalışması sonlandırılmıştır. 21 aşıya acil kullanım onayı verilmiştir. Bu aşı adayları içerisinde geleneksel olarak başvurulan yöntemlere ek olarak daha önce hiç ruhsatlandırılmamış yeni teknolojiler de bulunmaktadır. The most important of the ten great public health achievements today is vaccination. Vaccination is an example of social solidarity as well as providing individual protection against disease. If the rate of immunization with the vaccine is as high as 85-95% in a society, vulnerable populations who are not vaccinated are also protected. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused the COVID-19 disease, continues to spread with new mutations despite all individual and national measures taken. Since there is no effective antiviral drug yet, the most important method of fighting the disease is vaccination. In a short period of one year, COVID-19 vaccines were developed and started to be used on a global scale with emergency use approval. The discovery of a pandemic vaccine in such a short time is a great achievement for humanity. A total of 408 vaccine studies are currently available, including preclinical studies in 60 countries. The number of vaccines currently in clinical phase studies is 138 (Phase 1: 36, Phase 2: 65, Phase 3: 31). 6 vaccine studies, which are in clinical phase studies, have been terminated. 21 vaccines have been approved for immediate use. Among these vaccine candidates, in addition to the traditional methods, there are also new technologies that have never been licensed before.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam A. Capoferri; Wei Shao; Jon Spindler; John M. Coffin; Jason W. Rausch; Mary F. Kearney;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    COVID-19 vaccines were first administered on 15 December 2020, marking an important transition point for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States (U.S.). Prior to this point in time, the virus spread to an almost completely immunologically naïve population, whereas subsequently, vaccine-induced immune pressure and prior infections might be expected to influence viral evolution. Accordingly, we conducted a study to characterize the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the U.S. pre-vaccination, investigate the depth and uniformity of genetic surveillance during this period, and measure and otherwise characterize changing viral genetic diversity, including by comparison with more recently emergent variants of concern (VOCs). In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 spread across the U.S. in three phases distinguishable by peaks in the numbers of infections and shifting geographical distributions. Virus was genetically sampled during this period at an overall rate of ~1.2%, though there was a substantial mismatch between case rates and genetic sampling nationwide. Viral genetic diversity tripled over this period but remained low in comparison to other widespread RNA virus pathogens, and although 54 amino acid changes were detected at frequencies exceeding 5%, linkage among them was not observed. Based on our collective observations, our analysis supports a targeted strategy for worldwide genetic surveillance as perhaps the most sensitive and efficient means of detecting new VOCs.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jung Moon;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    GG COVID-19 Omicron and Delta kit (Cellgenemedix, South Korea, Investigational Use only) is a cost effective diagnostic tool optimized for rapid diagnosis of Omicron/Omicron stealth, Delta, and SARS CoV-2 infection, and is expected to be a useful tool in the control and surveillance as well as accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the new, antigen shift era of COVID-19 pandemic. Accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 as well as differentiation of Delta and Omicron variants is crucial in the decision making of high risk patients, especially when deciding whether they should be considered for in-patient care versus outpatient follow-up. GG COVID-19 Omicron and Delta kit is a cost effective diagnostic tool optimized for rapid (90 minutes from RNA extraction to results) POC diagnosis of Omicron and Delta as well as SARS CoV-2 infection. While it is screening for the variants and cannot replace sequencing as far as accuracy, the analytical sensitivity and specificity is high in our studies and the cost of this test is known to be similar to or slightly more expensive than the previous Real Time RT-PCR test for diagnosis of COVID-19. Also, the ability to screen tens of thousands of patients per lab in one setting is something that sequencing can never do, but real-time PCR can do. Dr Moon also added that “The GG Omicron and Delta kit is applicable to most real time PCR machines used all over the world such as Applied Biosystems 7500 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Rotor-Gene Q 5-plex HRM (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), CFX96 Touch Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) and comes with associated software compatible with all three machines. It also has the ability detect Stealth Omicron (BA.2, 3) which may not be detected in certain Omicron diagnostic methods and has the potential to detect future mixed delta and omicron type which may well be a problem in the future. Also, a new super-variant could be created if Omicron and Delta infect someone at the same time, one of Moderna's bosses”, Dr Paul Burton, has warned. In this case, The GG Omicron and Delta kit may play a key role in disease control and treatment and needs to be applied as soon as possible in as many countries as possible. investigational use only to date. ready for Export.

  • Open Access Ukrainian
    Authors: 
    Petrenko, V.I.; Noreiko, S.B.; Mostepan, T.V.; Aksiutin, H.V.; Popova, L.I.; Patiuk, Yu.O.; Gamachek, M.V.; Hrechaniuk, Yu.O.; Bondarenko, Ya.V.;
    Publisher: Private Enterprise INPOL LTM

    Objective — to acquaintance of practitioners with the clinical features of the course, diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2.Materials and methods. A clinical case of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 is described.Results and discussion. Disease onset has been characterized by complaints of headache, fever up to 39 °C, dry cough, growing shortness of breath, general weakness. The patient had contact with COVID-19 patient, a week ago, what is suspected COVID-19 that was confirmed by detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in the nasopharyngeal lavage by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) with the detection results in real time. According to the first CT of the chest cavity revealed focuses up to 1cm with vague contours in S8 of the right and S10 of the left lung. On CT of the chest cavity two weeks later, multiple consolidation focuses against the background of a reduction in the transparency of the pulmonary parenchyma by type of matt glass with signs of damage of interstitium. In comparison with the previous CT, negative dynamics was observed. The clinical symptoms and general condition during the first two weeks coincided with the CT data. At the next stage of treatment (3rd and 4th weeks) there was an improvement in the general condition, a decrease in the severity of clinical symptoms, normalization of laboratory parameters. The patient was discharged in satisfactory condition under the supervision of a family doctor.Conclusions. An important component of the timely diagnosis of COVID-19 is medical history, detec­tion of SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in the nasopharyngeal lavage by PCR with the detection results in real time, features of CT of the chest cavity that helps diagnose pneumonia at the initial stage of the disease and monitor the effectiveness of treatment in view of the radiological dynamics. Цель работы — ознакомить специалистов-практиков с клиническими особенностями течения, диагностики и лечения пневмонии, вызванной SARS-CoV‑2.Материалы и методы. Описан клинический случай наблюдения пневмонии, вызванной SARS-CoV‑2.Результаты и обсуждение. Начало заболевания характеризовалось жалобами на головную боль, резкое повышение температуры тела до 39 °C, сухой кашель, нарастающую одышку, общую слабость. Пациентка имела контакт с больным COVID‑19 неделю назад, в связи с чем заподозрено COVID‑19, что подтвердилось обнаружением РНК вируса SARS-CoV‑2 в носоглоточном смыве методом полимеразной цепной реакции (ПЦР) с детекцией результатов в режиме реального времени (rеаl time). По данным первой компьютерной томографии органов грудной полости (КТ ОГП) выявле­ны очаги до 1 см с нечеткими контурами в S8 правого и S10 левого легких. На КТ ОГП через 2 нед: множественные фокусы консолидации на фоне снижения прозрачности легочной паренхимы по типу матового стекла с признаками поражения интерстиция. По сравнению с предыдущим КТ ОГП отмечалась отрицательная динамика. Клиническая симптоматика и общее состояние в течение первых 2 нед совпадали с данными КТ ОГП. На следующем этапе лечения (3-я и 4-я недели) отмечены улучшение общего состояния, уменьшение выраженности клинических симптомов, нормализация лабораторных показателей. Больная выписана в удовлетворительном состоянии под наблюдение семейного врача.Выводы. Важным компонентом своевременной диагностики COVID‑19 является сбор анамнеза, выявление РНК вируса SARS-CoV‑2 в носоглоточном смыве методом ПЦР с детекцией результатов в режиме реального времени (rеаl time), проведение КТ ОГП, что помогает диагностировать пневмонию на начальном этапе заболевания и отслеживать эффективность лечения с учетом рентгенологической динамики. Мета роботи — ознайомити фахівців-практиків з клінічними особливостями перебігу, діагностики та лікування пневмонії, спричиненої SARS-CoV‑2.Матеріали та методи. Описано клінічний випадок спостереження пневмонії, спричиненої SARS-CoV‑2.Результати та обговорення. Початок захворювання характеризувався скаргами на головний біль, різке підвищення температури тіла до 39 °C, сухий кашель, наростаючу задишку, загальну слабкість. Пацієнтка мала контакт із хворим на COVID‑19 тиждень тому, у зв’язку з чим запідозрено COVID‑19, що підтвердилось виявленням РНК вірусу SARS-CoV‑2 у носоглотковому змиві методом полімеразної ланцюгової реакції (ПЛР) з детекцією результатів у режимі реального часу (rеаl time). За даними першої комп’ютерної томографії органів грудної порожнини (КТ ОГП) виявлено вогнища до 1 см з нечіткими контурами в S8 правої та S10 лівої легень. На КТ ОГП через 2 тиж: множинні фокуси консолідації на тлі зниження прозорості легеневої паренхіми за типом матового скла з ознаками ураження інтерстицію. Порівняно з попереднім КТ ОГП відмічалась негативна динаміка. Клінічна симптоматика та загальний стан протягом перших 2 тиж збігалися з даними КТ ОГП. На наступному етапі лікування (3-й та 4-й тижні) відмічено покращення загального стану, зменшення вираженості клінічних симптомів, нормалізацію лабораторних показників. Хвору виписано в задовільному стані під нагляд сімейного лікаря.Висновки. Важливим компонентом своєчасної діагностики COVID‑19 є збір анамнезу, виявлення РНК вірусу SARS-CoV‑2 у носоглотковому змиві методом ПЛР з детекцією результатів у режимі реального часу (rеаl time), проведення КТ ОГП, що допомагає діагностувати пневмонію на початковому етапі захворювання та відстежувати ефективність лікування з урахуванням рентгенологічної динаміки.

  • Open Access Spanish
    Authors: 
    Castañeda-Marín, Elio; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Alexandra; Grau-Bocanegra, Ricardo; Caballero-Alvarado, José;
    Publisher: Cuerpo Médico Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo

    RESUMEN Introducción . Hacia finales del último mes del 2019, se identificó un nuevo coronavirus altamente contagioso en China provocando el inicio de una nueva pandemia. Millones de infectados y miles de muertes es el resultado de la infección por el SARS-CoV-2; diferentes estrategias terapéuticas se han propuesto para su tratamiento, una de ellas ha sido la ivermectina, provocando discrepancias en la comunidad médica en relación a su uso. Nos propusimos revisar la evidencia científica disponible sobre el uso de la ivermectina en el contexto de la COVID-19 en humanos. Se realizó una búsqueda de bibliografía en las siguientes bases de datos: Pub Med, Web of Science, Cochrane, Clinical Trials e ISRCCTN usando expresiones de búsqueda que incluyan los siguientes términos: ivermectina, antiviral, virus, covid-19 y/o SARS-CoV-2. No hay evidencia científica que respalde el uso de ivermectina como tratamiento y/o profilaxis para la infección por SARS COV-2. ABSTRACT Introduction . Towards the end of the last month of 2019, a new highly contagious coronavirus was identified in China causing the start of a new pandemic. Millions of infected people and thousands of deaths are the result of SARS-CoV-2 infection; different therapeutic strategies have been proposed for its treatment, one of them has been ivermectin, causing discrepancies in the medical community regarding its use. We set out to review the available scientific evidence on the use of ivermectin in the context of IDVC-19 in humans. A literature search was conducted on the following databases: Pub Med, Web of Science, Cochrane, Clinical Trials, and ISRCCTN using search expressions that include the following terms: ivermectin, antiviral, virus, covid-19 and/or SARS-CoV-2. There is no scientific evidence to support the use of ivermectin as a treatment and/or prophylaxis for SARS- CoV-2 infection.