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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
448 Research products, page 1 of 45

  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani; Dimah Mezher Al-Ani;
    Publisher: University of Human Development

    Several years ago, China and the United States of America began experimenting with the coronavirus, which lives in the bat. It is not known until now how the virus spread and how it extended to all countries of the world. However, it is certain that this virus first appeared and spread was at the end of 2019 and in the Chinese city of Wuhan, especially in markets close to laboratories that are working on this virus. At the beginning of the year 2020, this virus began to spread very widely all over the world and began killing thousands of people every day. The world economy was destroyed until the World Health Organization considered it a pandemic. As for the research aspect, the researchers started the research work on this pandemic from many aspects, including medical, statistical, managerial, healthcare, and others. A statistical analysis depends many key factors that have been studied. This study was conducted on April 11, 2020, where a large number of research papers were downloaded using the keywords coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, which were applied in the Sciencedirect library that was examined on 100 research papers only. The obtained results indicated that most of the research papers that worked on the subject of COVID-19 confirmed that this virus infects the human respiratory system, which in turn leads to shortness of breath and death. Here, it must be noted that the human immune system has a major role in the process of overcoming this virus and gradual recovery. The obtained analysis indicated that the main fields of coronavirus are: Medicine 42%, statistics 21%, healthcare 19%, and management 18%. Through this study, it became clear that China is the first country in terms of the number of researchers and also in terms of the number of research papers related to the COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ankit Kumar; Satish Kumar; Vishal Mangal; Anil Shankar Menon;
    Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications

    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Viral illnesses such as influenza and COVID-19 are known to coexist with fungal infections, including Aspergillosis. The cases of COVID-19-associated pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) have been reported in the recent past; however, there is a paucity of literature from India. Hence, we report a case of CAPA in a 55-year-old diabetic male from India who was successfully managed with anti-fungals and had a favorable outcome. This case highlights the importance of the high index of suspicion for CAPA in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome who fail to improve or deteriorate clinically and radiologically despite standard therapy. The diagnosis must be confirmed with galactomannan assay from serum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples – early diagnosis and prompt management with anti-fungal results in a favorable outcome.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Delil, Sakir; Gulec, Bade; Kizilkilic, Esra Kochan; Senel, Gulcin Benbir; Yeni, Seher Naz; Ozkara, Cigdem;
    Publisher: Kare Publ
    Country: Turkey

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 infection on seizure recurrence in patients with epilepsy and the factors which may possibly be related to a deterioration of the seizure control. Methods: We evaluated the patients with epilepsy consecutively for 6 months. Data were collected in a pre-defined questionnaire from the patients and/or their parents, and past medical records. Results: A total of 574 patients were investigated during the study period, and 104 patients (18.1%) with epilepsy had COVID-19 infection. The majority of the patients (59.6%) were males. Sixteen patients with epilepsy (15.4%) had an increase in seizure frequency during COVID-19 infection.The mean age of the patients and the age at disease onset were significantly lower in patients with seizure exacerbation.The seizure frequency and the frequency of having a seizure within 1 month before the COVID-19 infection were also higher in these patients. Myalgia was significantly more common in patients with an increase in seizure frequency. The duration of the loss of smell and/or taste has lasted much more longer in this group of patients (48.0+60.6 vs. 13.8+13.4 days; p=0.013). The need for hospitalization was also more common in patients with seizure exacerbation (25.0% vs. 6.8%, p=0.045). Conclusion: This is the first study showing that one out of every six or seven patients with epilepsy will have seizure exacerbation during COVID-19 infection. Young patients, patients with early-onset epilepsy, and those with high seizure frequency were at higher risk for the seizure exacerbation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P.; Crayton, Ellen Debra;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading with a rising death toll and transmission rate reported in high income countries rather than in low income countries. The overburdened healthcare systems and poor disease surveillance systems in resource-limited settings may struggle to cope with this COVID-19 outbreak and this calls for a tailored strategic response for these settings. Here, we recommend a low cost blockchain and artificial intelligence-coupled self-testing and tracking systems for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases. Prompt deployment and appropriate implementation of the proposed system have the potential to curb the transmissions of COVID-19 and the related mortalities, particularly in settings with poor access to laboratory infrastructure.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 04 Jan 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kawada, Tomoyuki;
    Publisher: IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund

    EXCLI Journal; 20:Doc17; ISSN 1611-2156

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Suranjana Sur Mukherjee; Kakali Das Sarkar; Debalina Sengupta; Sunanda Sinhababu;
    Publisher: JCDR Research and Publications Private Limited

    Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic forced everyone to stay indoors for a long period. The institutional education system got a backseat. But Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) syllabus had to be covered within a stipulated time frame. As with every academic curriculum, online teaching had to be implemented in MBBS courses too without any scope for developing adequate logistics beforehand. Teachers, as well as students, tried their best to cope up with this ‘new normal’. Every day student had to be online for few hours to attend their classes as per the modified roster during the pandemic. Aim: To gather the data regarding perspective, satisfaction and problems of online classes from the 1st year MBBS students and also to recommend the modifications for future curriculum and upgrade the quality based on the students’ feedback and suggestions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was done in a single day across three Government Medical Colleges of West Bengal after eight months of continued online classes since lockdown. An online survey was conducted among the first-year students through google forms, which was mailed to every student’s email ID at a stipulated time of the day with prior notification. Out of 700 google forms sent, 527 responses were received. Responses were automatically analyzed by google and were represented graphically. Results: Out of 527 responses received, 145 were from females (27.5%) and 382 were from males (72.5%). Students were ready to adapt to this new development and 54.6% were more or less satisfied with the teaching methodologies, though interruption with the internet hampered their classes very often. Some could not afford the online class due to logistic or financial constraints. A 67.9% of students learnt to acquire in-depth knowledge by themselves though a good number of students (56.7%) disliked online classes and lost interest in the topic. Conclusion: Online teaching cannot replace classroom teaching but can complement it as compulsive prolonged online teaching made the learning self-directed. A thoughtful blending of online and offline classes can be implemented to make an Indian Medical Graduate (IMG) a lifelong learner

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ayam M Salih; Khalida K Abbas Al-Kelaby; Jawad R Al-Zaidi;
    Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications

    Our world was gripped by the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic during the first months of the year 2020. It has been characterized as a new coronavirus (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2, which is an acute severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and later, it has been referred to as the coronavirus disease-19 or COVID-19. Whereas this disease has been originated in Wuhan city in the Chinese province of Hubei, it was capable of rapidly spreading all over the world, which has resulted in a human disaster as well as massive economic damages. By the middle of June 2020, there were more than 8 million COVID-19 cases all over the world, with more than 436,000 death cases. The aim of this review study was to investigate the most effective therapeutic trials for COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Qiu; Liu, Hanmin;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory tract diseases often occur together. There are many overlapping pathologies, leading to the concept of the “gut-lung axis,” in which stimulation on one side triggers a response on the other side. This axis appears to be implicated in infections involving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has triggered the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in which respiratory symptoms of fever, cough, and dyspnea often occur together with gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Besides the gut-lung axis, it should be noted that the gut participates in numerous axes, which may affect lung function and consequently COVID-19 severity through several pathways. However, in this article, we mainly pay attention to the latest evidence and the mechanisms that drive the operation of the gut-lung axis, as well as discuss the interaction between the gut-lung axis and its possible involvement in COVID-19 from the perspective of microbiota, microbiota metabolites, microbial dysbiosis, common mucosal immunity and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Raising hypotheses and providing methods to guide future research on this new disease and its treatments.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nikolaos K. Gatselis; Vasiliki Lygoura; Aggeliki Lyberopoulou; George Giannoulis; Anna Samakidou; Antonia Vaiou; George Vatidis; Katerina Antoniou; Aggelos Stefos; Sarah Georgiadou; +6 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Risk stratification of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients by simple markers is critical to guide treatment. We studied the predictive value of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) for the early identification of patients at risk of developing severe clinical outcomes. sIL-2R levels were measured in 197 patients (60.9% males; median age 61 years; moderate disease, n = 65; severe, n = 132, intubated and/or died, n = 42). All patients received combined immunotherapies (anakinra ± corticosteroids ± intravenous immunoglobulin ± tocilizumab) according to our local treatment algorithm. The endpoint was the composite event of intubation due to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or mortality. Median (interquartile range) sIL-2R levels were significantly higher in patients with severe disease, compared with those with moderate disease (6 (6.2) vs. 5.2 (3.4) ng/mL, p = 0.017). sIL-2R was the strongest laboratory predictive factor for intubation/death (hazard ratio 1.749, 95%CI 1.041–2.939, p = 0.035) after adjustment for other known risk factors. Youden’s index revealed optimal sIL-2R cut-off for predicting intubation/death at 9 ng/mL (sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 86%; positive and negative predictive value: 57% and 91%, respectively). Delta sIL-2R between the day of event or discharge minus admission date was higher in patients that intubated/died than in those who did not experience an event (2.91 (10.42) vs. 0.44 (2.88) ng/mL; p = 0.08)). sIL-2R on admission and its dynamic changes during follow-up may reflect disease severity and predict the development of SRF and mortality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HariShankar Meshram; Sanshriti Chauhan; VivekB Kute; HimanshuV Patel; SudeepNimesh Desai; Subho Banerjee; RuchirShankar Dave; Sandeep Deshmukh;
    Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications

    Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still incompletely understood in transplantation, and there have been a few reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) like illness in transplant patients. Herein, we report a case of MIS-A in a renal transplant that ultimately was successfully managed. The case was a 32-year-old man, transplanted 3 years ago, with chronic graft dysfunction and no other comorbidities. He presented with a 3-day history of fever and abdominal pain with no respiratory complaints. The patient had multi-organ involvement in the form of acute pancreatitis, severe diarrhea, acute kidney injury, and shock. Inflammatory markers including D-dimer and C-reactive protein were elevated. Chest radiology showed bilateral haziness on admission. The patient had two consecutive SARS CoV 2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) tests negative initially but eventually SARS CoV 2 antibody test came positive. The patient was managed initially with broad-spectrum antibiotics, and after confirmation of MIS-A, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and anticoagulation were administered. The patient survived and was discharged on the 29th day of admission. Our reports highlight that MIS-A should be suspected in atypical cases irrespective of COVID-19 tests and should be confirmed with repeated RT-PCR and SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests.