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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rinzivillo, Calogero;
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    Authors: Ranke, Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; Despina Tougianidou; Michael B.;

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Viruses
    Other literature type . 2020
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      Viruses
      Other literature type . 2020
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada; Mas-Lloret, Vicente; Pozo Sanchez, Francisco; +2 Authors

    Estudio anual colaborativo de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV) El 17 de febrero de 2021, la Comisión Europea lanzó una de las acciones clave para la preparación y respuesta frente a las amenazas y emergencias transfronterizas graves, de origen natural o deliberado, creando un programa de preparación frente a los efectos de la circulación de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2. El 25 de febrero de 2021, la presidenta Ursula von der Leyen anunció que la Unión apoyaba el fortalecimiento de la detección, caracterización y propagación de las variantes del virus. La Comisión Europea, junto con el Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de Enfermedades (ECDC), estableció el Programa HERA-Incubator de apoyo a las infraestructuras nacionales de cada uno de los estados miembros. En España, mediante el Grant/2021/PHF/23776 se afianzó la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV). En 2023, a través del Programa EU4Health (EU4H), se ha conseguido enmarcar esta actividad mediante el proyecto 101113109-RELECOV 2.0 para la consolidación de la secuenciación genómica aplicada a la vigilancia virológica de las infecciones respiratorias asociadas a SARS-CoV-2 extendiéndose a gripe y al virus respiratorio sincitial. RELECOV cubre las necesidades de generación de secuencias y, mediante su análisis se cubre el conocimiento genómico de los virus circulantes. El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) (CNM-ISCIII) coordina dicha red y trabaja directamente con el ECDC y la OMS. Los principales objetivos de RELECOV se centran en mejorar el grado de especialización técnica adquirida para realizar las actividades propias de secuenciación de virus que es llevada a cabo por los laboratorios integrantes. Esto permite a RELECOV mejorar la investigación y la vigilancia de enfermedades infecciosas por el conocimiento genómico de los virus implicados que permite una detección temprana y un seguimiento de variantes y linajes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2. En este informe se presentan los resultados anuales generados mediante secuenciación genómica de SARS-CoV-2 para la detección e identificación de variantes en España, desde la semana 40/2022 hasta la semana 39/2023. Los datos que se presentan surgen de los resultados de secuenciación genómica y detección de variantes de los virus SARS-CoV-2 a nivel nacional producidos por todas las CCAA y las 2 Ciudades Autónomas que vigilan la aparición de cualquier variante/linaje emergente. El análisis de seguimiento de los linajes de SARS-CoV-2 contextualizan la situación a nivel nacional y se encuadran en la vigilancia de SARS-CoV-2 en España. No

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    REPISALUD
    Other ORP type . 2024
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      REPISALUD
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shaheen, Ibraheem Theeb; Kurdi, Yahya Nazem;

    The Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, is a highly pathogenic β- coronavirus that infects humans through air transmission remotely. The most critical step in Early Diagnosis is to treat the infection. The Diagnostic methods include nasal swab, rectal swab recently used in China, Bronchio-alveolar leavage, chest x-ray, CT-san, Ultrasound, viral culture, serology, and molecular methods. CRISPR-based method is used to diagnose and treat the infection. Presence of IgG and IgM in blood examination [1]. Also a viral Gene detection, human antibody detection and viral antigen, amidst the viral gene detection by the RT-PCR is the most a ested technique [2]. Antiviral Inhibitors of the spike proteins of SARS and MERS, favipiravir, Azithromycin, antipyretics, α- interferon, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids and interleukins inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors and EK1 peptide are the therapeutic ways for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine which was the treatment method for malaria has shown results in the SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Using and oxygen support can assuage the symptoms effectively [1]. A research was performed on the observation techniques and quantitative computable conviction methods of chloroquine and its related metabolites. Azithromycin is given with Hydroxychloroquine as a combination for treatment and anticoagulants for prevention of further complications [3]. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral characteristics immunologically in vitro. These findings show that these drugs have potency in treatment. But they have serious side effects, ranging from psychiatric to sudden death. So, favipiravir is the best drug of choice currently along with anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis [3][4].

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maltepe University I...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Janaína Ferreira De Lima; Walkiria Jéssica Araújo Silveira; Borges, Flávio Adriano;

    Objetivo: analisar as diferenças entre o estudo remoto emergencial e a educação a distância e refletir sobre os impactos nos cursos de enfermagem. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo teórico-reflexivo cuja fundamentação baseia-se na discussão entre o ensino emergencial e o ensino a distância e as implicações na formação do enfermeiro. Resultados: a pandemia da Covid-19 trouxe imensos desafios para o Brasil e o mundo. No que diz respeito à educação, em todo o território nacional, redes públicas e privadas interromperam suas atividades presenciais transferindo suas aulas e outras atividades pedagógicas para formatos a distância, chamando-o de ensino remoto emergencial. As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem trazem como perfil do formando (enfermeiro) que tenha uma formação generalista, crítica, reflexiva e acima de tudo, humanista. A fim de torná-lo um profissional qualificado para exercer a Enfermagem, pautado em princípios éticos Considerações Finais: Conclui-se que, ao retornarem para as salas de aulas, as instituições de ensino deverão comprometer-se a formar profissionais enfermeiros aptos para atuarem no serviço de saúde, planejando suas atividades com interação teoria e prática, além de focalizar nas limitações de aprendizagem encontradas no contexto pandêmico

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
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      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fabio Pasotti; Laura Pellegrinelli; Giuseppa Liga; Manuela Rizzetto; +10 Authors

    For diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and for monitoring its spread, the implementation of external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is mandatory to assess and ensure a standard quality according to national and international guidelines. Here, we present the results of the 2020, 2021, 2022 EQA schemes in Lombardy region for assessing the quality of the diagnostic laboratories involved in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In the framework of the Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs), the routinely EQA schemes are managed by the regional reference centre for diagnostic laboratories quality (RRC-EQA) of the Lombardy region and are carried out by all the diagnostic laboratories. Three EQA programs were organized: (1) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection; (2) EQA of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody testing; (3) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection. The percentage of concordance of 1938 molecular tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection EQA was 97.7%. The overall concordance of 1875 tests carried out within the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody EQA was 93.9% (79.6% for IgM). The overall concordance of 1495 tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection EQA was 85% and it was negatively impacted by the results obtained by the analysis of weak positive samples. In conclusion, the EQA schemes for assessing the accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in the Lombardy region highlighted a suitable reproducibility and reliability of diagnostic assays, despite the heterogeneous landscape of SARS-CoV-2 tests and methods. Laboratory testing based on the detection of viral RNA in respiratory samples can be considered the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.

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    Diagnostics
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Diagnostics
    Article . 2022
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      Diagnostics
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Diagnostics
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  • Authors: López-Ortiz, Geovani;

    Background: from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, new SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that potentially affect transmissibility, severity, and evasion of neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. In this context, the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 variants on clinical outcomes is analyzed. Methods: a systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. Two databases (PubMed and ScienceDirect) were searched for original articles published from January 1, 2020 to November 23, 2021.

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    Authors: Dayan, Saim;

    Günümüzdeki on büyük halk sağlığı başarısından en önemlisi aşılamadır. Aşılama, hastalığa karşı bireysel korumayı sağlamanın yanı sıra aynı zamanda bir toplumsal dayanışma örneğidir. Bir toplumda aşı ile bağışıklama oranı %85-95 gibi yüksek düzeyde ise aşılanmamış kırılgan kesimler de korunmuş olur. COVID-19 hastalığına neden olan SARS-CoV-2 pandemisi, alınan tüm bireysel ve ulusal önlemlere rağmen yeni mutasyonlarla yayılmaya devam etmektedir. Henüz etkili bir antiviral ilaç mevcut olmadığından hastalıkla mücadelenin şimdilik en önemli yöntemi aşılamadır. Bir yıl gibi kısa sürede COVID-19 aşıları geliştirilmiş ve acil kullanım onayı ile küresel ölçekte kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bir pandemi aşısının bu kadar kısa sürede bulunmuş olması insanlık adına çok büyük bir başarıdır. Halen 60 ülkede preklinik çalışmalar da dahil olmak üzere toplam 408 aşı çalışması mevcuttur. Klinik faz çalışmaları aşamasında olan aşı sayısı 138’dir (Faz 1: 36, Faz 2: 65, Faz 3: 31). Klinik faz çalışmaları aşamasında olan 6 aşı çalışması sonlandırılmıştır. 21 aşıya acil kullanım onayı verilmiştir. Bu aşı adayları içerisinde geleneksel olarak başvurulan yöntemlere ek olarak daha önce hiç ruhsatlandırılmamış yeni teknolojiler de bulunmaktadır. The most important of the ten great public health achievements today is vaccination. Vaccination is an example of social solidarity as well as providing individual protection against disease. If the rate of immunization with the vaccine is as high as 85-95% in a society, vulnerable populations who are not vaccinated are also protected. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused the COVID-19 disease, continues to spread with new mutations despite all individual and national measures taken. Since there is no effective antiviral drug yet, the most important method of fighting the disease is vaccination. In a short period of one year, COVID-19 vaccines were developed and started to be used on a global scale with emergency use approval. The discovery of a pandemic vaccine in such a short time is a great achievement for humanity. A total of 408 vaccine studies are currently available, including preclinical studies in 60 countries. The number of vaccines currently in clinical phase studies is 138 (Phase 1: 36, Phase 2: 65, Phase 3: 31). 6 vaccine studies, which are in clinical phase studies, have been terminated. 21 vaccines have been approved for immediate use. Among these vaccine candidates, in addition to the traditional methods, there are also new technologies that have never been licensed before.

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    Authors: Gentile, Fabrizio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Cimino, Anna Rita;
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  • Authors: BARY, Khadija;

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, first appeared in late 2019 in China. Given its rapid spread and pathogenic potential, the world urgently needs a vaccine that is the only way to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on public health and the economy. Currently, scientists are trying to rapidly develop new candidate vaccines. A variety of vaccine approaches and formulations for targeting the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are being pursued, including nucleic acid vaccines (mARN). Here we give a reminder about vaccination in general and we report the results of some studies conducted on the evaluation of the mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology, Vol. 2, No 2 (2020): July - December

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rinzivillo, Calogero;
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    Authors: Ranke, Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; Despina Tougianidou; Michael B.;

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

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    Viruses
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      Viruses
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    Authors: Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada; Mas-Lloret, Vicente; Pozo Sanchez, Francisco; +2 Authors

    Estudio anual colaborativo de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV) El 17 de febrero de 2021, la Comisión Europea lanzó una de las acciones clave para la preparación y respuesta frente a las amenazas y emergencias transfronterizas graves, de origen natural o deliberado, creando un programa de preparación frente a los efectos de la circulación de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2. El 25 de febrero de 2021, la presidenta Ursula von der Leyen anunció que la Unión apoyaba el fortalecimiento de la detección, caracterización y propagación de las variantes del virus. La Comisión Europea, junto con el Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de Enfermedades (ECDC), estableció el Programa HERA-Incubator de apoyo a las infraestructuras nacionales de cada uno de los estados miembros. En España, mediante el Grant/2021/PHF/23776 se afianzó la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV). En 2023, a través del Programa EU4Health (EU4H), se ha conseguido enmarcar esta actividad mediante el proyecto 101113109-RELECOV 2.0 para la consolidación de la secuenciación genómica aplicada a la vigilancia virológica de las infecciones respiratorias asociadas a SARS-CoV-2 extendiéndose a gripe y al virus respiratorio sincitial. RELECOV cubre las necesidades de generación de secuencias y, mediante su análisis se cubre el conocimiento genómico de los virus circulantes. El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) (CNM-ISCIII) coordina dicha red y trabaja directamente con el ECDC y la OMS. Los principales objetivos de RELECOV se centran en mejorar el grado de especialización técnica adquirida para realizar las actividades propias de secuenciación de virus que es llevada a cabo por los laboratorios integrantes. Esto permite a RELECOV mejorar la investigación y la vigilancia de enfermedades infecciosas por el conocimiento genómico de los virus implicados que permite una detección temprana y un seguimiento de variantes y linajes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2. En este informe se presentan los resultados anuales generados mediante secuenciación genómica de SARS-CoV-2 para la detección e identificación de variantes en España, desde la semana 40/2022 hasta la semana 39/2023. Los datos que se presentan surgen de los resultados de secuenciación genómica y detección de variantes de los virus SARS-CoV-2 a nivel nacional producidos por todas las CCAA y las 2 Ciudades Autónomas que vigilan la aparición de cualquier variante/linaje emergente. El análisis de seguimiento de los linajes de SARS-CoV-2 contextualizan la situación a nivel nacional y se encuadran en la vigilancia de SARS-CoV-2 en España. No

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    Authors: Shaheen, Ibraheem Theeb; Kurdi, Yahya Nazem;

    The Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, is a highly pathogenic β- coronavirus that infects humans through air transmission remotely. The most critical step in Early Diagnosis is to treat the infection. The Diagnostic methods include nasal swab, rectal swab recently used in China, Bronchio-alveolar leavage, chest x-ray, CT-san, Ultrasound, viral culture, serology, and molecular methods. CRISPR-based method is used to diagnose and treat the infection. Presence of IgG and IgM in blood examination [1]. Also a viral Gene detection, human antibody detection and viral antigen, amidst the viral gene detection by the RT-PCR is the most a ested technique [2]. Antiviral Inhibitors of the spike proteins of SARS and MERS, favipiravir, Azithromycin, antipyretics, α- interferon, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids and interleukins inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors and EK1 peptide are the therapeutic ways for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine which was the treatment method for malaria has shown results in the SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Using and oxygen support can assuage the symptoms effectively [1]. A research was performed on the observation techniques and quantitative computable conviction methods of chloroquine and its related metabolites. Azithromycin is given with Hydroxychloroquine as a combination for treatment and anticoagulants for prevention of further complications [3]. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral characteristics immunologically in vitro. These findings show that these drugs have potency in treatment. But they have serious side effects, ranging from psychiatric to sudden death. So, favipiravir is the best drug of choice currently along with anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis [3][4].

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    Authors: Janaína Ferreira De Lima; Walkiria Jéssica Araújo Silveira; Borges, Flávio Adriano;

    Objetivo: analisar as diferenças entre o estudo remoto emergencial e a educação a distância e refletir sobre os impactos nos cursos de enfermagem. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo teórico-reflexivo cuja fundamentação baseia-se na discussão entre o ensino emergencial e o ensino a distância e as implicações na formação do enfermeiro. Resultados: a pandemia da Covid-19 trouxe imensos desafios para o Brasil e o mundo. No que diz respeito à educação, em todo o território nacional, redes públicas e privadas interromperam suas atividades presenciais transferindo suas aulas e outras atividades pedagógicas para formatos a distância, chamando-o de ensino remoto emergencial. As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem trazem como perfil do formando (enfermeiro) que tenha uma formação generalista, crítica, reflexiva e acima de tudo, humanista. A fim de torná-lo um profissional qualificado para exercer a Enfermagem, pautado em princípios éticos Considerações Finais: Conclui-se que, ao retornarem para as salas de aulas, as instituições de ensino deverão comprometer-se a formar profissionais enfermeiros aptos para atuarem no serviço de saúde, planejando suas atividades com interação teoria e prática, além de focalizar nas limitações de aprendizagem encontradas no contexto pandêmico

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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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    Authors: Fabio Pasotti; Laura Pellegrinelli; Giuseppa Liga; Manuela Rizzetto; +10 Authors

    For diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and for monitoring its spread, the implementation of external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is mandatory to assess and ensure a standard quality according to national and international guidelines. Here, we present the results of the 2020, 2021, 2022 EQA schemes in Lombardy region for assessing the quality of the diagnostic laboratories involved in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In the framework of the Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs), the routinely EQA schemes are managed by the regional reference centre for diagnostic laboratories quality (RRC-EQA) of the Lombardy region and are carried out by all the diagnostic laboratories. Three EQA programs were organized: (1) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection; (2) EQA of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody testing; (3) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection. The percentage of concordance of 1938 molecular tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection EQA was 97.7%. The overall concordance of 1875 tests carried out within the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody EQA was 93.9% (79.6% for IgM). The overall concordance of 1495 tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection EQA was 85% and it was negatively impacted by the results obtained by the analysis of weak positive samples. In conclusion, the EQA schemes for assessing the accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in the Lombardy region highlighted a suitable reproducibility and reliability of diagnostic assays, despite the heterogeneous landscape of SARS-CoV-2 tests and methods. Laboratory testing based on the detection of viral RNA in respiratory samples can be considered the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.

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    Diagnostics
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Diagnostics
    Article . 2022
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      Diagnostics
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Diagnostics
      Article . 2022
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  • Authors: López-Ortiz, Geovani;

    Background: from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, new SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that potentially affect transmissibility, severity, and evasion of neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. In this context, the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 variants on clinical outcomes is analyzed. Methods: a systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. Two databases (PubMed and ScienceDirect) were searched for original articles published from January 1, 2020 to November 23, 2021.

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