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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rinzivillo, Calogero;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tamsheel Fatima Roohi;

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a deadly virus which is extended at the end of 2019 globally form seafood market, Wuhan, China and considered as novel coronavirus which has 70% similarity with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 considered as globally pandemic because of high mortality and fatality rate among worldwide by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disease caused by this called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in which 19 referred to as the year of occurrence of disease. The intermediate sources are humans but it is not known seriously but it is confirmed that the spreading is done by human-to-human transmission rapidly and widely. This review highlights the whole insight and the understanding towards the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 regarding its, spreading history, origin, epidemiology, prevalence rate, sources and modes of transmission, pathogenesis, life cycle entry mechanisms, clinical characteristics, symptoms, complications of comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment, research hindrances, preventive measures, potential pharmacological therapeutics (repurposing of main drugs) research with previous studies of SARS and MERS. The literature review databases were searched from the Scopus, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Elsevier, WHO situation reports. The SARS-CoV-2 infection has a high mortality rate and leads to a high global disaster to human well-being, social as well as economic. Lockdown phases are taken to prevent the spreading of the virus. Solitary confinement procedures followed by the clinical and health care services so, to inhibit the contamination of the areas with suspected patients. The research on the novel coronavirus (n-CoV) is still a concern and in the primary stage in which repurposing of the main pharmacological drugs which act on symptoms of COVID-19 trials are held. As such no clinically tested/approved vaccines/anti-viral drugs are prepared, approaches for preparation in respect to these viral outbreaks and against the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. However, some broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-viral drugs, angiotensin-converting enzymes 2 inhibitors (ACE 2) are clinically screened for the COVID-19 disease in clinical trials. This review article gives information publically about the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ranke, Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; Despina Tougianidou; Michael B.;

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Virusesarrow_drop_down
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    Viruses
    Other literature type . 2020
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      Viruses
      Other literature type . 2020
      License: CC BY
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada; Mas-Lloret, Vicente; Pozo Sanchez, Francisco; +2 Authors

    Estudio anual colaborativo de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV) El 17 de febrero de 2021, la Comisión Europea lanzó una de las acciones clave para la preparación y respuesta frente a las amenazas y emergencias transfronterizas graves, de origen natural o deliberado, creando un programa de preparación frente a los efectos de la circulación de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2. El 25 de febrero de 2021, la presidenta Ursula von der Leyen anunció que la Unión apoyaba el fortalecimiento de la detección, caracterización y propagación de las variantes del virus. La Comisión Europea, junto con el Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de Enfermedades (ECDC), estableció el Programa HERA-Incubator de apoyo a las infraestructuras nacionales de cada uno de los estados miembros. En España, mediante el Grant/2021/PHF/23776 se afianzó la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV). En 2023, a través del Programa EU4Health (EU4H), se ha conseguido enmarcar esta actividad mediante el proyecto 101113109-RELECOV 2.0 para la consolidación de la secuenciación genómica aplicada a la vigilancia virológica de las infecciones respiratorias asociadas a SARS-CoV-2 extendiéndose a gripe y al virus respiratorio sincitial. RELECOV cubre las necesidades de generación de secuencias y, mediante su análisis se cubre el conocimiento genómico de los virus circulantes. El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) (CNM-ISCIII) coordina dicha red y trabaja directamente con el ECDC y la OMS. Los principales objetivos de RELECOV se centran en mejorar el grado de especialización técnica adquirida para realizar las actividades propias de secuenciación de virus que es llevada a cabo por los laboratorios integrantes. Esto permite a RELECOV mejorar la investigación y la vigilancia de enfermedades infecciosas por el conocimiento genómico de los virus implicados que permite una detección temprana y un seguimiento de variantes y linajes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2. En este informe se presentan los resultados anuales generados mediante secuenciación genómica de SARS-CoV-2 para la detección e identificación de variantes en España, desde la semana 40/2022 hasta la semana 39/2023. Los datos que se presentan surgen de los resultados de secuenciación genómica y detección de variantes de los virus SARS-CoV-2 a nivel nacional producidos por todas las CCAA y las 2 Ciudades Autónomas que vigilan la aparición de cualquier variante/linaje emergente. El análisis de seguimiento de los linajes de SARS-CoV-2 contextualizan la situación a nivel nacional y se encuadran en la vigilancia de SARS-CoV-2 en España. No

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ REPISALUDarrow_drop_down
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    REPISALUD
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      REPISALUD
      Other ORP type . 2024
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shaheen, Ibraheem Theeb; Kurdi, Yahya Nazem;

    The Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, is a highly pathogenic β- coronavirus that infects humans through air transmission remotely. The most critical step in Early Diagnosis is to treat the infection. The Diagnostic methods include nasal swab, rectal swab recently used in China, Bronchio-alveolar leavage, chest x-ray, CT-san, Ultrasound, viral culture, serology, and molecular methods. CRISPR-based method is used to diagnose and treat the infection. Presence of IgG and IgM in blood examination [1]. Also a viral Gene detection, human antibody detection and viral antigen, amidst the viral gene detection by the RT-PCR is the most a ested technique [2]. Antiviral Inhibitors of the spike proteins of SARS and MERS, favipiravir, Azithromycin, antipyretics, α- interferon, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids and interleukins inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors and EK1 peptide are the therapeutic ways for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine which was the treatment method for malaria has shown results in the SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Using and oxygen support can assuage the symptoms effectively [1]. A research was performed on the observation techniques and quantitative computable conviction methods of chloroquine and its related metabolites. Azithromycin is given with Hydroxychloroquine as a combination for treatment and anticoagulants for prevention of further complications [3]. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral characteristics immunologically in vitro. These findings show that these drugs have potency in treatment. But they have serious side effects, ranging from psychiatric to sudden death. So, favipiravir is the best drug of choice currently along with anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis [3][4].

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maltepe University I...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maltepe University I...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Janaína Ferreira De Lima; Walkiria Jéssica Araújo Silveira; Borges, Flávio Adriano;

    Objetivo: analisar as diferenças entre o estudo remoto emergencial e a educação a distância e refletir sobre os impactos nos cursos de enfermagem. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo teórico-reflexivo cuja fundamentação baseia-se na discussão entre o ensino emergencial e o ensino a distância e as implicações na formação do enfermeiro. Resultados: a pandemia da Covid-19 trouxe imensos desafios para o Brasil e o mundo. No que diz respeito à educação, em todo o território nacional, redes públicas e privadas interromperam suas atividades presenciais transferindo suas aulas e outras atividades pedagógicas para formatos a distância, chamando-o de ensino remoto emergencial. As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem trazem como perfil do formando (enfermeiro) que tenha uma formação generalista, crítica, reflexiva e acima de tudo, humanista. A fim de torná-lo um profissional qualificado para exercer a Enfermagem, pautado em princípios éticos Considerações Finais: Conclui-se que, ao retornarem para as salas de aulas, as instituições de ensino deverão comprometer-se a formar profissionais enfermeiros aptos para atuarem no serviço de saúde, planejando suas atividades com interação teoria e prática, além de focalizar nas limitações de aprendizagem encontradas no contexto pandêmico

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fabio Pasotti; Laura Pellegrinelli; Giuseppa Liga; Manuela Rizzetto; +10 Authors

    For diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and for monitoring its spread, the implementation of external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is mandatory to assess and ensure a standard quality according to national and international guidelines. Here, we present the results of the 2020, 2021, 2022 EQA schemes in Lombardy region for assessing the quality of the diagnostic laboratories involved in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In the framework of the Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs), the routinely EQA schemes are managed by the regional reference centre for diagnostic laboratories quality (RRC-EQA) of the Lombardy region and are carried out by all the diagnostic laboratories. Three EQA programs were organized: (1) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection; (2) EQA of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody testing; (3) EQA of SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection. The percentage of concordance of 1938 molecular tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection EQA was 97.7%. The overall concordance of 1875 tests carried out within the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody EQA was 93.9% (79.6% for IgM). The overall concordance of 1495 tests carried out within the SARS-CoV-2 direct antigens detection EQA was 85% and it was negatively impacted by the results obtained by the analysis of weak positive samples. In conclusion, the EQA schemes for assessing the accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in the Lombardy region highlighted a suitable reproducibility and reliability of diagnostic assays, despite the heterogeneous landscape of SARS-CoV-2 tests and methods. Laboratory testing based on the detection of viral RNA in respiratory samples can be considered the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.

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    Diagnostics
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Diagnostics
    Article . 2022
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      Diagnostics
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Diagnostics
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Manashjyoti, Konwar; Diganta, Sarma;

    Originated in China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)- the highly contagious and fatal respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 29 million people worldwide with a mortality rate of 3.15% (according to World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) report, September 2020) and the number is exponentially increasing with no remedy whatsoever discovered till date. But it is not the first time this infectious viral disease has appeared, in 2002 SARS-CoV infected more than 8000 individuals of which 9.6% patients died and in 2012 approximately 35% of MERS-CoV infected patients have died. Literature reports indicate that a chymotripsin-like cystein protease (3CLpro) is responsible for the replication of the virus inside the host cell. Therefore, design and synthesis of 3CLpro inhibitor molecules play a great impact in drug development against this COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we are discussing the anti-SARS effect of some small molecule 3CLpro inhibitors with their various binding modes of interactions to the target protein. Highlights • Comparative study of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. • Overview of various protease inhibitors. • Importance of 3CLpro enzyme for virus replication. • 3CLpro as important target for drug discovery. Graphical abstract Image 1

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Sokolowska M; Eiwegger T; Ollert M; Torres MJ; +10 Authors

    The first approved COVID-19 vaccines include Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162B2, Moderna mRNA-1273 and AstraZeneca recombinant adenoviral ChAdOx1-S. Soon after approval, severe allergic reactions to the mRNA-based vaccines that resolved after treatment were reported. Regulatory agencies from the European Union, Unites States and the United Kingdom agree that vaccinations are contraindicated only when there is an allergy to one of the vaccine components or if there was a severe allergic reaction to the first dose. This position paper of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) agrees with these recommendations and clarifies that there is no contraindication to administer these vaccines to allergic patients who do not have a history of an allergic reaction to any of the vaccine components. Importantly, as is the case for any medication, anaphylaxis may occur after vaccination in the absence of a history of allergic disease. Therefore, we provide a simplified algorithm of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of severe allergic reactions and a list of recommended medications and equipment for vaccine centres. We also describe potentially allergenic/immunogenic components of the approved vaccines and propose a workup to identify the responsible allergen. Close collaboration between academia, regulatory agencies and vaccine producers will facilitate approaches for patients at risks, such as incremental dosing of the second injection or desensitization. Finally, we identify unmet research needs and propose a concerted international roadmap towards precision diagnosis and management to minimize the risk of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines and to facilitate their broader and safer use.

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  • Authors: López-Ortiz, Geovani;

    Background: from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, new SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that potentially affect transmissibility, severity, and evasion of neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. In this context, the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 variants on clinical outcomes is analyzed. Methods: a systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. Two databases (PubMed and ScienceDirect) were searched for original articles published from January 1, 2020 to November 23, 2021.

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    Authors: Rinzivillo, Calogero;
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    Authors: Tamsheel Fatima Roohi;

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a deadly virus which is extended at the end of 2019 globally form seafood market, Wuhan, China and considered as novel coronavirus which has 70% similarity with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 considered as globally pandemic because of high mortality and fatality rate among worldwide by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disease caused by this called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in which 19 referred to as the year of occurrence of disease. The intermediate sources are humans but it is not known seriously but it is confirmed that the spreading is done by human-to-human transmission rapidly and widely. This review highlights the whole insight and the understanding towards the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 regarding its, spreading history, origin, epidemiology, prevalence rate, sources and modes of transmission, pathogenesis, life cycle entry mechanisms, clinical characteristics, symptoms, complications of comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment, research hindrances, preventive measures, potential pharmacological therapeutics (repurposing of main drugs) research with previous studies of SARS and MERS. The literature review databases were searched from the Scopus, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Elsevier, WHO situation reports. The SARS-CoV-2 infection has a high mortality rate and leads to a high global disaster to human well-being, social as well as economic. Lockdown phases are taken to prevent the spreading of the virus. Solitary confinement procedures followed by the clinical and health care services so, to inhibit the contamination of the areas with suspected patients. The research on the novel coronavirus (n-CoV) is still a concern and in the primary stage in which repurposing of the main pharmacological drugs which act on symptoms of COVID-19 trials are held. As such no clinically tested/approved vaccines/anti-viral drugs are prepared, approaches for preparation in respect to these viral outbreaks and against the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. However, some broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-viral drugs, angiotensin-converting enzymes 2 inhibitors (ACE 2) are clinically screened for the COVID-19 disease in clinical trials. This review article gives information publically about the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Ranke, Bertram Flehmig; Michael Schindler; Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Manfred Bayer; Angelika Haage; Thomas Kirchner; Karin Klingel; Andrea Normann; Lutz Pridzun; Despina Tougianidou; Michael B.;

    The relationship between the nasopharyngeal virus load, IgA and IgG antibodies to both the S1-RBD-protein and the N-protein, as well as the neutralizing activity (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of moderately afflicted COVID-19 patients, needs further longitudinal investigation. Several new serological methods to examine these parameters were developed, validated and applied in three patients of a family which underwent an ambulatory course of COVID-19 for six months. The virus load had almost completely disappeared after about four weeks. Serum IgA levels to the S1-RBD-protein and, to a lesser extent, to the N-protein, peaked about three weeks after clinical disease onset but declined soon thereafter. IgG levels rose continuously, reaching a plateau at approximately six weeks, and stayed elevated over the observation period. Virus-neutralizing activity reached a peak about 4 weeks after disease onset but dropped slowly. The longitudinal associations of virus neutralization and the serological immune response suggest immunity in patients even after a mild clinical course of COVID-19.

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    Authors: Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada; Mas-Lloret, Vicente; Pozo Sanchez, Francisco; +2 Authors

    Estudio anual colaborativo de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV) El 17 de febrero de 2021, la Comisión Europea lanzó una de las acciones clave para la preparación y respuesta frente a las amenazas y emergencias transfronterizas graves, de origen natural o deliberado, creando un programa de preparación frente a los efectos de la circulación de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2. El 25 de febrero de 2021, la presidenta Ursula von der Leyen anunció que la Unión apoyaba el fortalecimiento de la detección, caracterización y propagación de las variantes del virus. La Comisión Europea, junto con el Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de Enfermedades (ECDC), estableció el Programa HERA-Incubator de apoyo a las infraestructuras nacionales de cada uno de los estados miembros. En España, mediante el Grant/2021/PHF/23776 se afianzó la Red Nacional de Laboratorios Españoles de Secuenciación Genómica de SARS-CoV-2 (RELECOV). En 2023, a través del Programa EU4Health (EU4H), se ha conseguido enmarcar esta actividad mediante el proyecto 101113109-RELECOV 2.0 para la consolidación de la secuenciación genómica aplicada a la vigilancia virológica de las infecciones respiratorias asociadas a SARS-CoV-2 extendiéndose a gripe y al virus respiratorio sincitial. RELECOV cubre las necesidades de generación de secuencias y, mediante su análisis se cubre el conocimiento genómico de los virus circulantes. El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) (CNM-ISCIII) coordina dicha red y trabaja directamente con el ECDC y la OMS. Los principales objetivos de RELECOV se centran en mejorar el grado de especialización técnica adquirida para realizar las actividades propias de secuenciación de virus que es llevada a cabo por los laboratorios integrantes. Esto permite a RELECOV mejorar la investigación y la vigilancia de enfermedades infecciosas por el conocimiento genómico de los virus implicados que permite una detección temprana y un seguimiento de variantes y linajes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2. En este informe se presentan los resultados anuales generados mediante secuenciación genómica de SARS-CoV-2 para la detección e identificación de variantes en España, desde la semana 40/2022 hasta la semana 39/2023. Los datos que se presentan surgen de los resultados de secuenciación genómica y detección de variantes de los virus SARS-CoV-2 a nivel nacional producidos por todas las CCAA y las 2 Ciudades Autónomas que vigilan la aparición de cualquier variante/linaje emergente. El análisis de seguimiento de los linajes de SARS-CoV-2 contextualizan la situación a nivel nacional y se encuadran en la vigilancia de SARS-CoV-2 en España. No

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    Authors: Shaheen, Ibraheem Theeb; Kurdi, Yahya Nazem;

    The Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, is a highly pathogenic β- coronavirus that infects humans through air transmission remotely. The most critical step in Early Diagnosis is to treat the infection. The Diagnostic methods include nasal swab, rectal swab recently used in China, Bronchio-alveolar leavage, chest x-ray, CT-san, Ultrasound, viral culture, serology, and molecular methods. CRISPR-based method is used to diagnose and treat the infection. Presence of IgG and IgM in blood examination [1]. Also a viral Gene detection, human antibody detection and viral antigen, amidst the viral gene detection by the RT-PCR is the most a ested technique [2]. Antiviral Inhibitors of the spike proteins of SARS and MERS, favipiravir, Azithromycin, antipyretics, α- interferon, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids and interleukins inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors and EK1 peptide are the therapeutic ways for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine which was the treatment method for malaria has shown results in the SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Using and oxygen support can assuage the symptoms effectively [1]. A research was performed on the observation techniques and quantitative computable conviction methods of chloroquine and its related metabolites. Azithromycin is given with Hydroxychloroquine as a combination for treatment and anticoagulants for prevention of further complications [3]. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral characteristics immunologically in vitro. These findings show that these drugs have potency in treatment. But they have serious side effects, ranging from psychiatric to sudden death. So, favipiravir is the best drug of choice currently along with anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis [3][4].

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    Authors: Janaína Ferreira De Lima; Walkiria Jéssica Araújo Silveira; Borges, Flávio Adriano;

    Objetivo: analisar as diferenças entre o estudo remoto emergencial e a educação a distância e refletir sobre os impactos nos cursos de enfermagem. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo teórico-reflexivo cuja fundamentação baseia-se na discussão entre o ensino emergencial e o ensino a distância e as implicações na formação do enfermeiro. Resultados: a pandemia da Covid-19 trouxe imensos desafios para o Brasil e o mundo. No que diz respeito à educação, em todo o território nacional, redes públicas e privadas interromperam suas atividades presenciais transferindo suas aulas e outras atividades pedagógicas para formatos a distância, chamando-o de ensino remoto emergencial. As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem trazem como perfil do formando (enfermeiro) que tenha uma formação generalista, crítica, reflexiva e acima de tudo, humanista. A fim de torná-lo um profissional qualificado para exercer a Enfermagem, pautado em princípios éticos Considerações Finais: Conclui-se que, ao retornarem para as salas de aulas, as instituições de ensino deverão comprometer-se a formar profissionais enfermeiros aptos para atuarem no serviço de saúde, planejando suas atividades com interação teoria e prática, além de focalizar nas limitações de aprendizagem encontradas no contexto pandêmico

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